Objectives We sought to compare the arrhythmic risk and sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation of mutations located in transmembrane regions and C-terminal regions of the KCNQ1 channel in the LQT1 form of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). Background The LQT1 syndrome is frequently manifested with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance and is much more sensitive to sympathetic stimulation than the other forms. Methods Sixty-six LQT1 patients (27 families) with a total of 19 transmembrane mutations and 29 patients (10 families) with 8 C-terminal mutations were enrolled from five Japanese institutes. Results Patients with transmembrane mutations were more frequently affected based on electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnostic criteria (82% vs. 24%, p < 0.0001) and had more frequent LQTS-related cardiac events (all cardiac events: 55% vs. 21%, p = 0.002; syncope: 55% vs. 21%, p = 0.002; aborted cardiac arrest or unexpected sudden cardiac death: 15% vs. 0%, p = 0.03) than those with C-terminal mutations. Patients with transmembrane mutations had a greater risk of first cardiac events occurring at an earlier age, with a hazard ratio of 3.4 (p = 0.006) and with an 8% increase in risk per 10-ms increase in corrected Q-Tend. The baseline ECG parameters, including Q-Tend, Q-Tpeak, and Tpeak-end intervals, were significantly greater in patients with transmembrane mutations than in those with C-terminal mutations (p < 0.005). Moreover, the corrected Q-Tend and Tpeak-end were more prominently increased with exercise in patients with transmembrane mutations (p < 0.005). Conclusions In this multicenter Japanese population, LQT1 patients with transmembrane mutations are at higher risk of congenital LQTS-related cardiac events and have greater sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation, as compared with patients with C-terminal mutations.
- Ca -activated chloride current
- action potential duration
- deoxyribonucleic acid
- fast component of the delayed rectifier potassium current
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine