Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino

G. Bellini, J. Benziger, D. Bick, S. Bonetti, M. Buizza Avanzini, B. Caccianiga, L. Cadonati, F. Calaprice, C. Carraro, A. Chavarria, A. Chepurnov, D. D'Angelo, S. Davini, A. Derbin, A. Etenko, F. Von Feilitzsch, K. Fomenko, D. Franco, C. Galbiati, S. Gazzana & 68 others C. Ghiano, M. Giammarchi, M. Goeger-Neff, A. Goretti, E. Guardincerri, S. Hardy, Ianni Aldo Ianni, Ianni Andrea Ianni, M. Joyce, V. Kobychev, Yusuke Koshio, D. Korablev, G. Korga, D. Kryn, M. Laubenstein, C. Lendvai, T. Lewke, E. Litvinovich, B. Loer, F. Lombardi, P. Lombardi, L. Ludhova, I. MacHulin, S. Manecki, W. Maneschg, G. Manuzio, Q. Meindl, E. Meroni, L. Miramonti, M. Misiaszek, D. Montanari, V. Muratova, L. Oberauer, M. Obolensky, F. Ortica, M. Pallavicini, L. Papp, L. Perasso, S. Perasso, A. Pocar, S. Raghavan, G. Ranucci, A. Razeto, A. Re, A. Romani, D. Rountree, A. Sabelnikov, R. Saldanha, C. Salvo, S. Schönert, H. Simgen, M. Skorokhvatov, O. Smirnov, A. Sotnikov, S. Sukhotin, Y. Suvorov, R. Tartaglia, G. Testera, D. Vignaud, B. Vogelaar, J. Winter, M. Wojcik, A. Wright, M. Wurm, J. Xu, O. Zaimidoroga, S. Zavatarelli, G. Zuzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

72 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992 % or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is ∼ 3°-5° and the lateral resolution is ∼35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberP05005
JournalJournal of Instrumentation
Volume6
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Neutron
muons
Neutrons
Detector
Detectors
neutrons
Neutrinos
Cherenkov Detectors
detectors
Nuclear Reactor
Scintillator
Supernovae
Reconstruction Algorithm
Contamination
Sun
Angular distribution
Nucleus
High Efficiency
Nuclear reactors
Lateral

Keywords

  • Cherenkov detectors
  • Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics
  • Particle identification methods
  • Particle tracking detectors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Mathematical Physics

Cite this

Bellini, G., Benziger, J., Bick, D., Bonetti, S., Buizza Avanzini, M., Caccianiga, B., ... Zuzel, G. (2011). Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino. Journal of Instrumentation, 6(5), [P05005]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/6/05/P05005

Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino. / Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Chepurnov, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Aldo Ianni, Ianni; Andrea Ianni, Ianni; Joyce, M.; Kobychev, V.; Koshio, Yusuke; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lendvai, C.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; MacHulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Rountree, D.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

In: Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 6, No. 5, P05005, 05.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bellini, G, Benziger, J, Bick, D, Bonetti, S, Buizza Avanzini, M, Caccianiga, B, Cadonati, L, Calaprice, F, Carraro, C, Chavarria, A, Chepurnov, A, D'Angelo, D, Davini, S, Derbin, A, Etenko, A, Von Feilitzsch, F, Fomenko, K, Franco, D, Galbiati, C, Gazzana, S, Ghiano, C, Giammarchi, M, Goeger-Neff, M, Goretti, A, Guardincerri, E, Hardy, S, Aldo Ianni, I, Andrea Ianni, I, Joyce, M, Kobychev, V, Koshio, Y, Korablev, D, Korga, G, Kryn, D, Laubenstein, M, Lendvai, C, Lewke, T, Litvinovich, E, Loer, B, Lombardi, F, Lombardi, P, Ludhova, L, MacHulin, I, Manecki, S, Maneschg, W, Manuzio, G, Meindl, Q, Meroni, E, Miramonti, L, Misiaszek, M, Montanari, D, Muratova, V, Oberauer, L, Obolensky, M, Ortica, F, Pallavicini, M, Papp, L, Perasso, L, Perasso, S, Pocar, A, Raghavan, S, Ranucci, G, Razeto, A, Re, A, Romani, A, Rountree, D, Sabelnikov, A, Saldanha, R, Salvo, C, Schönert, S, Simgen, H, Skorokhvatov, M, Smirnov, O, Sotnikov, A, Sukhotin, S, Suvorov, Y, Tartaglia, R, Testera, G, Vignaud, D, Vogelaar, B, Winter, J, Wojcik, M, Wright, A, Wurm, M, Xu, J, Zaimidoroga, O, Zavatarelli, S & Zuzel, G 2011, 'Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino', Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 6, no. 5, P05005. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/6/05/P05005
Bellini G, Benziger J, Bick D, Bonetti S, Buizza Avanzini M, Caccianiga B et al. Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino. Journal of Instrumentation. 2011 May;6(5). P05005. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/6/05/P05005
Bellini, G. ; Benziger, J. ; Bick, D. ; Bonetti, S. ; Buizza Avanzini, M. ; Caccianiga, B. ; Cadonati, L. ; Calaprice, F. ; Carraro, C. ; Chavarria, A. ; Chepurnov, A. ; D'Angelo, D. ; Davini, S. ; Derbin, A. ; Etenko, A. ; Von Feilitzsch, F. ; Fomenko, K. ; Franco, D. ; Galbiati, C. ; Gazzana, S. ; Ghiano, C. ; Giammarchi, M. ; Goeger-Neff, M. ; Goretti, A. ; Guardincerri, E. ; Hardy, S. ; Aldo Ianni, Ianni ; Andrea Ianni, Ianni ; Joyce, M. ; Kobychev, V. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Korablev, D. ; Korga, G. ; Kryn, D. ; Laubenstein, M. ; Lendvai, C. ; Lewke, T. ; Litvinovich, E. ; Loer, B. ; Lombardi, F. ; Lombardi, P. ; Ludhova, L. ; MacHulin, I. ; Manecki, S. ; Maneschg, W. ; Manuzio, G. ; Meindl, Q. ; Meroni, E. ; Miramonti, L. ; Misiaszek, M. ; Montanari, D. ; Muratova, V. ; Oberauer, L. ; Obolensky, M. ; Ortica, F. ; Pallavicini, M. ; Papp, L. ; Perasso, L. ; Perasso, S. ; Pocar, A. ; Raghavan, S. ; Ranucci, G. ; Razeto, A. ; Re, A. ; Romani, A. ; Rountree, D. ; Sabelnikov, A. ; Saldanha, R. ; Salvo, C. ; Schönert, S. ; Simgen, H. ; Skorokhvatov, M. ; Smirnov, O. ; Sotnikov, A. ; Sukhotin, S. ; Suvorov, Y. ; Tartaglia, R. ; Testera, G. ; Vignaud, D. ; Vogelaar, B. ; Winter, J. ; Wojcik, M. ; Wright, A. ; Wurm, M. ; Xu, J. ; Zaimidoroga, O. ; Zavatarelli, S. ; Zuzel, G. / Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino. In: Journal of Instrumentation. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 5.
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abstract = "Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992 {\%} or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is ∼ 3°-5° and the lateral resolution is ∼35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Muon and cosmogenic neutron detection in Borexino

AU - Bellini, G.

AU - Benziger, J.

AU - Bick, D.

AU - Bonetti, S.

AU - Buizza Avanzini, M.

AU - Caccianiga, B.

AU - Cadonati, L.

AU - Calaprice, F.

AU - Carraro, C.

AU - Chavarria, A.

AU - Chepurnov, A.

AU - D'Angelo, D.

AU - Davini, S.

AU - Derbin, A.

AU - Etenko, A.

AU - Von Feilitzsch, F.

AU - Fomenko, K.

AU - Franco, D.

AU - Galbiati, C.

AU - Gazzana, S.

AU - Ghiano, C.

AU - Giammarchi, M.

AU - Goeger-Neff, M.

AU - Goretti, A.

AU - Guardincerri, E.

AU - Hardy, S.

AU - Aldo Ianni, Ianni

AU - Andrea Ianni, Ianni

AU - Joyce, M.

AU - Kobychev, V.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Korablev, D.

AU - Korga, G.

AU - Kryn, D.

AU - Laubenstein, M.

AU - Lendvai, C.

AU - Lewke, T.

AU - Litvinovich, E.

AU - Loer, B.

AU - Lombardi, F.

AU - Lombardi, P.

AU - Ludhova, L.

AU - MacHulin, I.

AU - Manecki, S.

AU - Maneschg, W.

AU - Manuzio, G.

AU - Meindl, Q.

AU - Meroni, E.

AU - Miramonti, L.

AU - Misiaszek, M.

AU - Montanari, D.

AU - Muratova, V.

AU - Oberauer, L.

AU - Obolensky, M.

AU - Ortica, F.

AU - Pallavicini, M.

AU - Papp, L.

AU - Perasso, L.

AU - Perasso, S.

AU - Pocar, A.

AU - Raghavan, S.

AU - Ranucci, G.

AU - Razeto, A.

AU - Re, A.

AU - Romani, A.

AU - Rountree, D.

AU - Sabelnikov, A.

AU - Saldanha, R.

AU - Salvo, C.

AU - Schönert, S.

AU - Simgen, H.

AU - Skorokhvatov, M.

AU - Smirnov, O.

AU - Sotnikov, A.

AU - Sukhotin, S.

AU - Suvorov, Y.

AU - Tartaglia, R.

AU - Testera, G.

AU - Vignaud, D.

AU - Vogelaar, B.

AU - Winter, J.

AU - Wojcik, M.

AU - Wright, A.

AU - Wurm, M.

AU - Xu, J.

AU - Zaimidoroga, O.

AU - Zavatarelli, S.

AU - Zuzel, G.

PY - 2011/5

Y1 - 2011/5

N2 - Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992 % or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is ∼ 3°-5° and the lateral resolution is ∼35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.

AB - Borexino, a liquid scintillator detector at LNGS, is designed for the detection of neutrinos and antineutrinos from the Sun, supernovae, nuclear reactors, and the Earth. The feeble nature of these signals requires a strong suppression of backgrounds below a few MeV. Very low intrinsic radiogenic contamination of all detector components needs to be accompanied by the efficient identification of muons and of muon-induced backgrounds. Muons produce unstable nuclei by spallation processes along their trajectory through the detector whose decays can mimic the expected signals; for isotopes with half-lives longer than a few seconds, the dead time induced by a muon-related veto becomes unacceptably long, unless its application can be restricted to a sub-volume along the muon track. Consequently, not only the identification of muons with very high efficiency but also a precise reconstruction of their tracks is of primary importance for the physics program of the experiment. The Borexino inner detector is surrounded by an outer water-Cherenkov detector that plays a fundamental role in accomplishing this task. The detector design principles and their implementation are described. The strategies adopted to identify muons are reviewed and their efficiency is evaluated. The overall muon veto efficiency is found to be 99.992 % or better. Ad-hoc track reconstruction algorithms developed are presented. Their performance is tested against muon events of known direction such as those from the CNGS neutrino beam, test tracks available from a dedicated External Muon Tracker and cosmic muons whose angular distribution reflects the local overburden profile. The achieved angular resolution is ∼ 3°-5° and the lateral resolution is ∼35-50 cm, depending on the impact parameter of the crossing muon. The methods implemented to efficiently tag cosmogenic neutrons are also presented.

KW - Cherenkov detectors

KW - Large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics

KW - Particle identification methods

KW - Particle tracking detectors

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U2 - 10.1088/1748-0221/6/05/P05005

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JO - Journal of Instrumentation

JF - Journal of Instrumentation

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