Multiple loss-of-function putative aminotransferase alleles contribute to low pungency and capsinoid biosynthesis in Capsicum chinense

Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Tomomi Sonoyama, Yuji Muraga, Sota Koeda, Tanjuro Goto, Yuichi Yoshida, Kenichiro Yasuba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Capsicum chinense is a domesticated hot pepper species in the Capsicum genus that originated in the Amazon and is consumed in USA, the Caribbean and South America. Although a characteristic of this species is high pungency, some non-pungent or low-pungent strains, called “Aji Dulce” (sweet pepper in Spanish), exist in the Caribbean region. In the present study, low-pungent C. chinense accessions were analyzed in order to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for low pungency. All low-pungent C. chinense accessions in this study carried non-functional alleles of putative aminotransferase (pAMT), which catalyzes the formation of vanillylamine from vanillin in the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. These low-pungent accessions produced capsinoids, low-pungent capsaicinoid analogs. The pamt mutation in each strain was characterized using allele-specific markers, and one novel pamt allele (pamt7) was identified. The pamt7 had a new hAT family transposon insertion in the second exon region, which caused the loss of pAMT expression. pamt7 is apparently an ancestral allele for pamt6 because the 7-bp insertion in pamt6 can be regarded as a footprint of the transposon. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles was performed to examine their relationships. Combined with previously reported pamt alleles, the Tcc family transposon insertion and its excision were involved in the generation of various pamt alleles in C. chinense. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles showed that at least five occurred within C. chinense after speciation of the Capsicum genus. In conclusion, the results of the present study identified pamt as the main and most frequent gene controlling low pungency in C. chinense. Allelic variations in loss-of function pamt and their wide distribution demonstrated the potential of C. chinense bioresources for genetic improvements to pungency and metabolic profiles in hot pepper breeding programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number142
JournalMolecular Breeding
Volume35
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 12 2015

Fingerprint

Capsicum chinense
Capsicum
transaminases
Transaminases
Alleles
biosynthesis
alleles
transposons
hot peppers
Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum
Metabolome
South America
vanillin
new family
Biosynthetic Pathways
phylogeny
sweet peppers
genetic improvement
exons
Breeding

Keywords

  • Capsaicinoid
  • Capsicum chinense
  • Capsinoid
  • Hot pepper
  • Low pungency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Molecular Biology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics
  • Biotechnology

Cite this

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title = "Multiple loss-of-function putative aminotransferase alleles contribute to low pungency and capsinoid biosynthesis in Capsicum chinense",
abstract = "Capsicum chinense is a domesticated hot pepper species in the Capsicum genus that originated in the Amazon and is consumed in USA, the Caribbean and South America. Although a characteristic of this species is high pungency, some non-pungent or low-pungent strains, called “Aji Dulce” (sweet pepper in Spanish), exist in the Caribbean region. In the present study, low-pungent C. chinense accessions were analyzed in order to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for low pungency. All low-pungent C. chinense accessions in this study carried non-functional alleles of putative aminotransferase (pAMT), which catalyzes the formation of vanillylamine from vanillin in the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. These low-pungent accessions produced capsinoids, low-pungent capsaicinoid analogs. The pamt mutation in each strain was characterized using allele-specific markers, and one novel pamt allele (pamt7) was identified. The pamt7 had a new hAT family transposon insertion in the second exon region, which caused the loss of pAMT expression. pamt7 is apparently an ancestral allele for pamt6 because the 7-bp insertion in pamt6 can be regarded as a footprint of the transposon. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles was performed to examine their relationships. Combined with previously reported pamt alleles, the Tcc family transposon insertion and its excision were involved in the generation of various pamt alleles in C. chinense. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles showed that at least five occurred within C. chinense after speciation of the Capsicum genus. In conclusion, the results of the present study identified pamt as the main and most frequent gene controlling low pungency in C. chinense. Allelic variations in loss-of function pamt and their wide distribution demonstrated the potential of C. chinense bioresources for genetic improvements to pungency and metabolic profiles in hot pepper breeding programs.",
keywords = "Capsaicinoid, Capsicum chinense, Capsinoid, Hot pepper, Low pungency",
author = "Yoshiyuki Tanaka and Tomomi Sonoyama and Yuji Muraga and Sota Koeda and Tanjuro Goto and Yuichi Yoshida and Kenichiro Yasuba",
year = "2015",
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T1 - Multiple loss-of-function putative aminotransferase alleles contribute to low pungency and capsinoid biosynthesis in Capsicum chinense

AU - Tanaka, Yoshiyuki

AU - Sonoyama, Tomomi

AU - Muraga, Yuji

AU - Koeda, Sota

AU - Goto, Tanjuro

AU - Yoshida, Yuichi

AU - Yasuba, Kenichiro

PY - 2015/6/12

Y1 - 2015/6/12

N2 - Capsicum chinense is a domesticated hot pepper species in the Capsicum genus that originated in the Amazon and is consumed in USA, the Caribbean and South America. Although a characteristic of this species is high pungency, some non-pungent or low-pungent strains, called “Aji Dulce” (sweet pepper in Spanish), exist in the Caribbean region. In the present study, low-pungent C. chinense accessions were analyzed in order to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for low pungency. All low-pungent C. chinense accessions in this study carried non-functional alleles of putative aminotransferase (pAMT), which catalyzes the formation of vanillylamine from vanillin in the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. These low-pungent accessions produced capsinoids, low-pungent capsaicinoid analogs. The pamt mutation in each strain was characterized using allele-specific markers, and one novel pamt allele (pamt7) was identified. The pamt7 had a new hAT family transposon insertion in the second exon region, which caused the loss of pAMT expression. pamt7 is apparently an ancestral allele for pamt6 because the 7-bp insertion in pamt6 can be regarded as a footprint of the transposon. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles was performed to examine their relationships. Combined with previously reported pamt alleles, the Tcc family transposon insertion and its excision were involved in the generation of various pamt alleles in C. chinense. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles showed that at least five occurred within C. chinense after speciation of the Capsicum genus. In conclusion, the results of the present study identified pamt as the main and most frequent gene controlling low pungency in C. chinense. Allelic variations in loss-of function pamt and their wide distribution demonstrated the potential of C. chinense bioresources for genetic improvements to pungency and metabolic profiles in hot pepper breeding programs.

AB - Capsicum chinense is a domesticated hot pepper species in the Capsicum genus that originated in the Amazon and is consumed in USA, the Caribbean and South America. Although a characteristic of this species is high pungency, some non-pungent or low-pungent strains, called “Aji Dulce” (sweet pepper in Spanish), exist in the Caribbean region. In the present study, low-pungent C. chinense accessions were analyzed in order to elucidate the genetic mechanisms responsible for low pungency. All low-pungent C. chinense accessions in this study carried non-functional alleles of putative aminotransferase (pAMT), which catalyzes the formation of vanillylamine from vanillin in the capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway. These low-pungent accessions produced capsinoids, low-pungent capsaicinoid analogs. The pamt mutation in each strain was characterized using allele-specific markers, and one novel pamt allele (pamt7) was identified. The pamt7 had a new hAT family transposon insertion in the second exon region, which caused the loss of pAMT expression. pamt7 is apparently an ancestral allele for pamt6 because the 7-bp insertion in pamt6 can be regarded as a footprint of the transposon. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles was performed to examine their relationships. Combined with previously reported pamt alleles, the Tcc family transposon insertion and its excision were involved in the generation of various pamt alleles in C. chinense. A phylogenetic analysis of pamt alleles showed that at least five occurred within C. chinense after speciation of the Capsicum genus. In conclusion, the results of the present study identified pamt as the main and most frequent gene controlling low pungency in C. chinense. Allelic variations in loss-of function pamt and their wide distribution demonstrated the potential of C. chinense bioresources for genetic improvements to pungency and metabolic profiles in hot pepper breeding programs.

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