Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium detected by electron-beam computed tomography among men aged 40-49 in Japan than in the US, despite a less favorable profile of major risk factors

Akira Sekikawa, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Wahid Riad Zaky, Takashi Kadowaki, Daniel Edmundowicz, Tomonori Okamura, Kim Sutton-Tyrrell, Yasuyuki Nakamura, Katsuya Egawa, Hideyuki Kanda, Atsunori Kashigawa, Yoshiyuki Kita, Hiroshi Maegawa, Kenichi Mitsunami, Kiyoshi Murata, Yoshihiko Nishio, Shinji Tamaki, Yoshiki Ueno, Lewis H. Kuller

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Abstract

Background: Since World War II (WWII), exposures to westernized lifestyle have occurred in many non-Western countries, including Japan. National surveys showed that risk factor profiles for atherosclerosis around 1990 were similar in men in the post WWII birth cohorts in the US and Japan. We compared the degree of coronary calcium and other factors in men in the post WWII birth cohort: men aged 40-49 in the US and Japan. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study examining randomly selected 100 men from Kusatsu, Japan, and 100 men from Allegheny County, US. Coronary calcium was assessed using electron-beam computed tomography. Results: Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and smoking rates were higher among the Japanese (122.6 ± 14.1 versus 113.7 ± 9.6 mmHg, P < 0.01; 5.72 ± 0.90 versus 4.99 ± 0.81 mmol/l (220.9 ± 34.6 versus 192.8 ± 31.3 mg/dl), P < 0.01; 3.52 ± 1.01 versus 3.10 ± 0.78 mmol/l (136.0 ± 39.0 versus 119.7 ± 30.0 mg/dl), P < 0.01; and 48 versus 15%, P < 0.01, respectively). Triglycerides and fibrinogen were similar. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was higher among the Japanese. Body mass index, fasting insulin, and C-reactive protein were higher among the Americans. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium score >0 was strikingly lower among the Japanese than the Americans (13% versus 47%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium despite a less favourable profile of many major independent risk factors in the Japanese might imply that there are strong protective factors against atherosclerosis in the Japanese. Further investigation is of critical importance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-179
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2005
Externally publishedYes

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X Ray Computed Tomography
Japan
World War II
Calcium
Atherosclerosis
Parturition
Blood Pressure
Asian Americans
LDL Cholesterol
Life Style
Cross-Sectional Studies
Smoking
Cholesterol

Keywords

  • Coronary Calcium
  • Electron-beam computed tomography
  • Epidemiology
  • Japan
  • Post World War II birth cohort
  • Risk factors
  • Subclinical atherosclerosis
  • US

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium detected by electron-beam computed tomography among men aged 40-49 in Japan than in the US, despite a less favorable profile of major risk factors. / Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zaky, Wahid Riad; Kadowaki, Takashi; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Okamura, Tomonori; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Egawa, Katsuya; Kanda, Hideyuki; Kashigawa, Atsunori; Kita, Yoshiyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Tamaki, Shinji; Ueno, Yoshiki; Kuller, Lewis H.

In: International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 34, No. 1, 01.02.2005, p. 173-179.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sekikawa, A, Ueshima, H, Zaky, WR, Kadowaki, T, Edmundowicz, D, Okamura, T, Sutton-Tyrrell, K, Nakamura, Y, Egawa, K, Kanda, H, Kashigawa, A, Kita, Y, Maegawa, H, Mitsunami, K, Murata, K, Nishio, Y, Tamaki, S, Ueno, Y & Kuller, LH 2005, 'Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium detected by electron-beam computed tomography among men aged 40-49 in Japan than in the US, despite a less favorable profile of major risk factors', International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyh285
Sekikawa, Akira ; Ueshima, Hirotsugu ; Zaky, Wahid Riad ; Kadowaki, Takashi ; Edmundowicz, Daniel ; Okamura, Tomonori ; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim ; Nakamura, Yasuyuki ; Egawa, Katsuya ; Kanda, Hideyuki ; Kashigawa, Atsunori ; Kita, Yoshiyuki ; Maegawa, Hiroshi ; Mitsunami, Kenichi ; Murata, Kiyoshi ; Nishio, Yoshihiko ; Tamaki, Shinji ; Ueno, Yoshiki ; Kuller, Lewis H. / Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium detected by electron-beam computed tomography among men aged 40-49 in Japan than in the US, despite a less favorable profile of major risk factors. In: International Journal of Epidemiology. 2005 ; Vol. 34, No. 1. pp. 173-179.
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abstract = "Background: Since World War II (WWII), exposures to westernized lifestyle have occurred in many non-Western countries, including Japan. National surveys showed that risk factor profiles for atherosclerosis around 1990 were similar in men in the post WWII birth cohorts in the US and Japan. We compared the degree of coronary calcium and other factors in men in the post WWII birth cohort: men aged 40-49 in the US and Japan. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study examining randomly selected 100 men from Kusatsu, Japan, and 100 men from Allegheny County, US. Coronary calcium was assessed using electron-beam computed tomography. Results: Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and smoking rates were higher among the Japanese (122.6 ± 14.1 versus 113.7 ± 9.6 mmHg, P < 0.01; 5.72 ± 0.90 versus 4.99 ± 0.81 mmol/l (220.9 ± 34.6 versus 192.8 ± 31.3 mg/dl), P < 0.01; 3.52 ± 1.01 versus 3.10 ± 0.78 mmol/l (136.0 ± 39.0 versus 119.7 ± 30.0 mg/dl), P < 0.01; and 48 versus 15{\%}, P < 0.01, respectively). Triglycerides and fibrinogen were similar. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was higher among the Japanese. Body mass index, fasting insulin, and C-reactive protein were higher among the Americans. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium score >0 was strikingly lower among the Japanese than the Americans (13{\%} versus 47{\%}, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium despite a less favourable profile of many major independent risk factors in the Japanese might imply that there are strong protective factors against atherosclerosis in the Japanese. Further investigation is of critical importance.",
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T1 - Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium detected by electron-beam computed tomography among men aged 40-49 in Japan than in the US, despite a less favorable profile of major risk factors

AU - Sekikawa, Akira

AU - Ueshima, Hirotsugu

AU - Zaky, Wahid Riad

AU - Kadowaki, Takashi

AU - Edmundowicz, Daniel

AU - Okamura, Tomonori

AU - Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

AU - Nakamura, Yasuyuki

AU - Egawa, Katsuya

AU - Kanda, Hideyuki

AU - Kashigawa, Atsunori

AU - Kita, Yoshiyuki

AU - Maegawa, Hiroshi

AU - Mitsunami, Kenichi

AU - Murata, Kiyoshi

AU - Nishio, Yoshihiko

AU - Tamaki, Shinji

AU - Ueno, Yoshiki

AU - Kuller, Lewis H.

PY - 2005/2/1

Y1 - 2005/2/1

N2 - Background: Since World War II (WWII), exposures to westernized lifestyle have occurred in many non-Western countries, including Japan. National surveys showed that risk factor profiles for atherosclerosis around 1990 were similar in men in the post WWII birth cohorts in the US and Japan. We compared the degree of coronary calcium and other factors in men in the post WWII birth cohort: men aged 40-49 in the US and Japan. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study examining randomly selected 100 men from Kusatsu, Japan, and 100 men from Allegheny County, US. Coronary calcium was assessed using electron-beam computed tomography. Results: Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and smoking rates were higher among the Japanese (122.6 ± 14.1 versus 113.7 ± 9.6 mmHg, P < 0.01; 5.72 ± 0.90 versus 4.99 ± 0.81 mmol/l (220.9 ± 34.6 versus 192.8 ± 31.3 mg/dl), P < 0.01; 3.52 ± 1.01 versus 3.10 ± 0.78 mmol/l (136.0 ± 39.0 versus 119.7 ± 30.0 mg/dl), P < 0.01; and 48 versus 15%, P < 0.01, respectively). Triglycerides and fibrinogen were similar. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was higher among the Japanese. Body mass index, fasting insulin, and C-reactive protein were higher among the Americans. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium score >0 was strikingly lower among the Japanese than the Americans (13% versus 47%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium despite a less favourable profile of many major independent risk factors in the Japanese might imply that there are strong protective factors against atherosclerosis in the Japanese. Further investigation is of critical importance.

AB - Background: Since World War II (WWII), exposures to westernized lifestyle have occurred in many non-Western countries, including Japan. National surveys showed that risk factor profiles for atherosclerosis around 1990 were similar in men in the post WWII birth cohorts in the US and Japan. We compared the degree of coronary calcium and other factors in men in the post WWII birth cohort: men aged 40-49 in the US and Japan. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study examining randomly selected 100 men from Kusatsu, Japan, and 100 men from Allegheny County, US. Coronary calcium was assessed using electron-beam computed tomography. Results: Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and smoking rates were higher among the Japanese (122.6 ± 14.1 versus 113.7 ± 9.6 mmHg, P < 0.01; 5.72 ± 0.90 versus 4.99 ± 0.81 mmol/l (220.9 ± 34.6 versus 192.8 ± 31.3 mg/dl), P < 0.01; 3.52 ± 1.01 versus 3.10 ± 0.78 mmol/l (136.0 ± 39.0 versus 119.7 ± 30.0 mg/dl), P < 0.01; and 48 versus 15%, P < 0.01, respectively). Triglycerides and fibrinogen were similar. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was higher among the Japanese. Body mass index, fasting insulin, and C-reactive protein were higher among the Americans. Prevalence of coronary artery calcium score >0 was strikingly lower among the Japanese than the Americans (13% versus 47%, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Much lower prevalence of coronary calcium despite a less favourable profile of many major independent risk factors in the Japanese might imply that there are strong protective factors against atherosclerosis in the Japanese. Further investigation is of critical importance.

KW - Coronary Calcium

KW - Electron-beam computed tomography

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Japan

KW - Post World War II birth cohort

KW - Risk factors

KW - Subclinical atherosclerosis

KW - US

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