Graphite surfaces were bombarded by Ar+ ions with and without a simultaneous Ni supply at room temperature. The sputtered surfaces without Ni supply were characterized by densely distributed conical protrusions with aligned single carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the tops. By contrast, an excess Ni supply during Ar+ bombardment suppressed the CNF formation, while under the proper Ni supply conditions, single Ni-doped CNFs grew on slender needle-like structures or conical protrusions depending on the supply rate of Ni atoms. Non-doped CNFs were characterized by the amorphous-like or very fine-crystallites nature, whereas the Ni-doped CNFs were featured by polycrystalline structure. Thus, the crystalline structure was controllable by Ni doping. Because any kinds of materials can be doped into ion-induced CNFs, it is believed that the ion-irradiation method will open up a new approach to fabricate 1-dimensional composite nanomaterials at room temperature.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)