Cellular communication network factor (CCN) 2 and 3 are the members of the CCN family that conduct the harmonized development of a variety of tissues and organs under interaction with multiple biomolecules in the microenvironment. Despite their striking structural similarities, these two members show contrastive molecular functions as well as temporospatial emergence in living tissues. Typically, CCN2 promotes cell growth, whereas CCN3 restrains it. Where CCN2 is produced, CCN3 disappears. Nevertheless, these two proteins collaborate together to execute their mission in a yin–yang fashion. The apparent functional counteractions of CCN2 and CCN3 can be ascribed to their direct molecular interaction and interference over the cofactors that are shared by the two. Recent studies have revealed the mutual negative regulation systems between CCN2 and CCN3. Moreover, the simultaneous and bidirectional regulatory system of CCN2 and CCN3 is also being clarified. It is of particular note that these regulations were found to be closely associated with glycolysis, a fundamental procedure of energy metabolism. Here, the molecular interplay and metabolic gene regulation that enable the yin–yang collaboration of CCN2 and CCN3 typically found in cartilage development/regeneration and fibrosis are described.
- cellular communication network factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry