Atomic processes in Sn plasmas are investigated for application to extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light sources used in microlithography. We develop a full collisional radiative (CR) model of Sn plasmas based on calculated atomic data using Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC). Resonance and satellite lines from singly and multiply excited states of Sn ions, which contribute significantly to the EUV emission, are identified and included in the model through a systematic investigation of their effect on the emission spectra. The wavelengths of the 4d-4f+4p-4d transitions of Sn5+ to Sn13+ are investigated, because of their importance for determining the conversion efficiency of the EUV source, in conjunction with the effect of configuration interaction in the calculation of atomic structure. Calculated emission spectra are compared with those of charge exchange spectroscopy and of laser produced plasma EUV sources. The comparison is also carried out for the opacity of a radiatively heated Sn sample. A reasonable agreement is obtained between calculated and experimental EUV emission spectra observed under the typical condition of EUV sources with the ion density and ionization temperature of the plasma around 1018 cm-3 and 20 eV, respectively, by applying a wavelength correction to the resonance and satellite lines. Finally, the spectral emissivity and opacity of Sn plasmas are calculated as a function of electron temperature and ion density. The results are useful for radiation hydrodynamics simulations for the optimization of EUV sources.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)