Miniaturized Potentiometric Titration for Improving Portability and Accuracy in the Determination of Total Acid in Squeezed Fruit Juice

Thitaporn Sonsa-ard, Duangjai Nacapricha, Takashi Kaneta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Abstract: To determine the total acidity in freshly squeezed fruit juice, we miniaturized the potentiometric titrations and achieved better accuracy compared with titrations from a conventional pH probe. The improvement was the result of a higher jump in pH at the endpoint due to a reduction in the dilutions of both the titrand and titrant. A conventional pH probe requires more than 50 mL of titrand, which can lead to a 25000-fold dilution of the titrant when adding the titrant at 2 µL intervals. Conversely, when the volume of the titrand can be reduced to 1 mL, the dilution is only 500-fold, which results in a higher jump in pH at the endpoint. The concentration of the titrant, NaOH, was optimized by titrating sample solutions containing 25 and 50 mM of citric acid. The addition of 5 M NaOH in intervals of 2 µL led to a more accurate endpoint for both 25 and 50 mM citric acid solutions. Miniaturization of the titration process is advantageous in terms of portability, accuracy, and in requiring less consumption of a sample, thereby simplifying the process of repeat measurements that are helpful in evaluating the precision of analytical results. Practical samples of squeezed fruit juices were titrated via three methods that showed no significant differences: classic titrimetry with an indicator, conventional potentiometry, and miniaturized potentiometry. This process would be effective for use in the field and in developing countries. Practical Application: The total acidity of fruits and fruit juices is an important indicator of quality and is generally expressed in terms of the citric acid content. However, a standard potentiometric titration requires a large sample volume, which makes it difficult to assess dispersion of the acidity for individual fruits. The results of this study indicate that the use of miniaturized potentiometric titration could benefit food chemistry in many developing countries in addition to opening new fields of food chemistry such as on-site quality control of citrus fruit and evaluation of variations in quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2165-2170
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Food Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • compact pH sensor
  • miniaturized potentiometric titration
  • squeezed fruit juice
  • total acidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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