Midazolam is associated with delay in recovery and agitation after ambulatory general anesthesia for dental treatment in patients with disabilities: A retrospective cohort study

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Purpose: Some patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) who undergo total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) have complications associated with the anesthesia such as prolonged recovery. The purposes of this study were to estimate the frequency of TIVA complications among patients with IDs and to identify factors associated with TIVA complications. Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Study samples were selected from the clinical records of patients with IDs who underwent ambulatory general anesthesia in a special dental clinic at the Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan. Predictor variables were patient background, anesthesia-related variables, and dental treatment. Outcome variables were delayed recovery and the complication of agitation. Factors affecting delayed recovery and complications were examined with multivariable analysis. Results: We enrolled 106 cases (81 male and 25 female patients) in this study. The mean age was 23.9 years. Serious complications were not observed in any cases. The amount of intravenous midazolam was an independent determinant of delayed recovery. Oral midazolam contributed to delayed recovery, although it is very useful for induction in patients with a high level of fear. Oral midazolam and a younger age were independent predictors of agitation. Conclusions: Intravenous midazolam may not have an advantage in ambulatory general anesthesia. Oral midazolam contributes to delayed recovery and is an independent predictor of agitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1315-1320
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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