Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) have attracted much attention over the past decade because they offer clinicians the ability to deliver point-of-care testing and onsite analysis. Many of the advantages of µPADs, however, are limited to work in a laboratory setting due to the difficulties of processing data when using electronic devices in the field. This review focuses on the use of µPADs that have the potential to work without batteries or with only small and portable devices such as smartphones, timers, or miniaturized detectors. The µPADs that can be operated without batteries are, in general, those that allow the visual judgment of analyte concentrations via readouts that are measured in time, distance, count, or text. Conversely, a smartphone works as a camera to permit the capture and processing of an image that digitizes the color intensity produced by the reaction of an analyte with a colorimetric reagent. Miniaturized detectors for electrochemical, fluorometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemiluminescence methods are also discussed, although some of them require the use of a laptop computer for operation and data processing.
- Microfluidic paper-based analytical device
- onsite analysis
- paper-based analytical device
- point-of-care testing
ASJC Scopus subject areas