Here, we present a method for preparing vesicles by combining hydrothermal emulsification with solvent diffusion (SD). The sorbitan monolaurate/polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20/Tween 20) system was used as the target lipid because these lipids are cheap and advantageous for the production scale. The water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion stabilized with lipids was formed under hydrothermal conditions (240 °C under 10 MPa), followed by mixing with water that included lipids to obtain a W/O-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion. The SD for the W/O/W emulsion as a subsequent process yielded vesicles. The optimal preparation conditions were 50:50 wt% Span 20/Tween 20 as a mixing ratio (final lipid concentration 12 mM), octanoic acid as an organic solvent, 240 °C for 4 min during the hydrothermal treatment, and 4 °C for 24 h in the SD process. The diameter of the vesicles obtained was at most 100 nm, which was comparable to that of the W/O/W emulsion before SD. This suggested that the W/O/W emulsion acted as a template for vesicle formation. The number density, diameter, and membrane properties of vesicles depend on the mixing ratio of the water/oil/lipid system. Specifically, the number density of vesicles was low relative to that of vesicles prepared by the conventional method.
- Hydrothermal condition
- Solvent diffusion
- W/O/W emulsion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry