Microbial community analysis of food-spoilage bacteria in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods

Kensuke Arakawa, Y. Kawai, H. Iioka, M. Tanioka, J. Nishimura, H. Kitazawa, K. Tsurumi, T. Saito

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Custard cream is made from highly nutritive raw materials such as milk and sugar and is easily spoiled by the multiplication of specific microbial contaminants or residents. However, this spoilage microbial community has not been studied. We determined the spoilage microbiota in commercial custard creams using culture-dependent and independent methods. Using the culture-dependent analysis with various agar media, 185 bacterial colonies and 43 eukaryal colonies were isolated from 7 commercial custard cream products. All bacterial isolates were morphologically, physiologically, and genetically identified as bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, and psychrotrophic gram-negative rods. Using culture-independent molecular analysis, the PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique, spoilage of the commercial custard creams was found to be caused by bacilli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophic gram-negative rods, Anoxy-bacillus sp., Caurobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. bacteria. The detected spoilage bacteria were the same species as previously detected in spoiled milk products and shown in other reports, suggesting that spoilage bacteria in a raw material easily grow in processed foods made from milk. We determined the spoilage microbial communities in commercial custard creams, and these are the first data concerning spoilage microbiota in nonfermented processed foods using a culture-independent analysis. Our study will be useful for the manufacture and safe preservation of dairy products because the first step toward safe food preservation by food manufacturers is to understand the spoilage microbiota in a target food to select optimal preservatives and to reduce the use of food additives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2938-2946
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes



  • 16S rDNA
  • Custard cream
  • Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
  • Spoilage microbiota

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Food Science

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