Metformin-ROS-Nrf2 connection in the host defense mechanism against oxidative stress, apoptosis, cancers, and ageing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) acts as a second messenger to trigger biological responses in low concentrations, while it is implicated to be toxic to biomolecules in high concentrations. Mild inhibition of respiratory chain Complex I by metformin at physiologically relevant concentrations stimulates production of low-level mitochondrial ROS. The ROS seems to induce anti-oxidative stress response via activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which results in not only elimination of ROS but also activation of cellular responses including resistance to apoptosis, metabolic changes, cell proliferation, senescence prevention, lifespan extension, and immune T cell activation against cancers, regardless of its effect controlling blood glucose level and T2DM. Although metformin's effect against T2DM, cancers, and ageing, are believed mostly attributed to the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the cellular responses involving metformin-ROS-Nrf2 axis might be another natural asset to improve healthspan and lifespan.

Original languageEnglish
Article number130171
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects
Volume1866
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • Ageing
  • Apoptosis
  • Mitochondrial ROS
  • Nrf2
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

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