Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: A 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan

Koshi Nakamura, Tomonori Okamura, Takehito Hayakawa, Hideyuki Kanda, Akira Okayama, Hirotsugu Ueshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)


Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: neither smoking habit nor hypertension, smoking habit alone, hypertension alone or both smoking habit and hypertension. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18 444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21 252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31 037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17 418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (P<0.01). Japanese men with both a smoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)802-807
Number of pages6
JournalHypertension Research
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2010
Externally publishedYes



  • epidemiology
  • medical expenditures
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this