N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of signal transmission form neural circuits and thus are thought to underlie learning and memory. These mechanisms are mediated by AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking in postsynaptic neurons. However, the regulatory mechanism of bidirectional plasticity at excitatory synapses remains unclear. We present a network model of AMPAR trafficking for adult hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which reproduces both LTP and LTD. We show that the induction of both LTP and LTD is regulated by the competition between exocytosis and endocytosis of AMPARs, which are mediated by the calcium-sensors synaptotagmin 1/7 (Syt1/7) and protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1), respectively. Our result indicates that recycling endosomes containing AMPAR are always ready for Syt1/7-dependent exocytosis of AMPAR at peri-synaptic/synaptic membranes. This is because molecular motor myosin Vb constitutively transports the recycling endosome toward the membrane in a Ca2+-independent manner.
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