Pressure is a clean, continuous, and systematic tuning parameter among the competing ground states in strongly correlated electron systems such as superconductivity and magnetism. However, owing to the restricted access to samples enclosed in high-pressure devices, compatible magnetic field sensors with sufficient sensitivity are rare. We used nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond as a spatially resolved vector field sensor for material research under pressure at cryogenic temperatures. Using a single crystal of BaFe2(As0.59P0.41)2 as a benchmark, we extracted the superconducting transition temperature, the local magnetic field profile in the Meissner state, and the critical fields. The method developed in this work offers a distinct tool for probing and understanding a range of quantum many-body systems.
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