Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande

Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, E. Ichihara, K. Inoue, K. Ishihara, Hirokazu Ishino, Y. Itow, T. Kajita, J. Kameda, S. Kasuga, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Yusuke Koshio, M. Miura, M. Nakahata, S. Nakayama, A. Okada, K. Okumura, N. Sakurai, M. ShiozawaY. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, Y. Totsuka, S. Yamada, M. Earl, A. Habig, E. Kearns, M. D. Messier, K. Scholberg, J. L. Stone, L. R. Sulak, C. W. Walter, M. Goldhaber, T. Barszczak, D. Casper, W. Gajewski, W. R. Kropp, L. R. Price, F. Reines, M. Smy, H. W. Sobel, M. R. Vagins, K. S. Ganezer, W. E. Keig, R. W. Ellsworth, S. Tasaka, J. W. Flanagan, A. Kibayashi, J. G. Learned, S. Matsuno, V. J. Stenger, D. Takemori, T. Ishii, J. Kanzaki, T. Kobayashi, S. Mine, K. Nakamura, K. Nishikawa, Y. Oyama, A. Sakai, M. Sakuda, O. Sasaki, Makoto Sakuda, M. Kohama, A. T. Suzuki, T. J. Haines, E. Blaufuss, B. K. Kim, R. Sanford, R. Svoboda, M. L. Chen, J. A. Goodman, G. W. Sullivan, J. Hill, C. K. Jung, K. Martens, C. Mauger, C. McGrew, E. Sharkey, B. Viren, C. Yanagisawa, W. Doki, K. Miyano, H. Okazawa, C. Saji, M. Takahata, Y. Nagashima, M. Takita, T. Yamaguchi, M. Yoshida, S. B. Kim, M. Etoh, K. Fujita, A. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa, S. Hatakeyama, T. Iwamoto, M. Koga, T. Maruyama, H. Ogawa, J. Shirai, A. Suzuki, F. Tsushima, M. Koshiba, M. Nemoto, K. Nishijima, T. Futagami, Y. Hayato, Y. Kanaya, K. Kaneyuki, Y. Watanabe, D. Kielczewska, R. A. Doyle, J. S. George, A. L. Stachyra, L. L. Wai, R. J. Wilkes, K. K. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

A total of 614 upward throughgoing mouns of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is [1.74 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.02(sys)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1 compared to an expected flux of [1.97 ± 0.44(theor)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward throughgoing muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the νμ ↔ ντ oscillation hypothesis with sin2 2θ > 0.4 and 1 × 10-3 <1 × 10-1 <δm2 <1 × 10-1 eV2 at 90% confidence level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2644-2648
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume82
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Mar 29 1999
Externally publishedYes

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zenith
muons
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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Fukuda, Y., Hayakawa, T., Ichihara, E., Inoue, K., Ishihara, K., Ishino, H., ... Young, K. K. (1999). Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande. Physical Review Letters, 82(13), 2644-2648.

Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande. / Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, Hirokazu; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Yusuke; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Okada, A.; Okumura, K.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Kearns, E.; Messier, M. D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Walter, C. W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Casper, D.; Gajewski, W.; Kropp, W. R.; Price, L. R.; Reines, F.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H. W.; Vagins, M. R.; Ganezer, K. S.; Keig, W. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J. W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V. J.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Mine, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Sakuda, Makoto; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A. T.; Haines, T. J.; Blaufuss, E.; Kim, B. K.; Sanford, R.; Svoboda, R.; Chen, M. L.; Goodman, J. A.; Sullivan, G. W.; Hill, J.; Jung, C. K.; Martens, K.; Mauger, C.; McGrew, C.; Sharkey, E.; Viren, B.; Yanagisawa, C.; Doki, W.; Miyano, K.; Okazawa, H.; Saji, C.; Takahata, M.; Nagashima, Y.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kim, S. B.; Etoh, M.; Fujita, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Iwamoto, T.; Koga, M.; Maruyama, T.; Ogawa, H.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tsushima, F.; Koshiba, M.; Nemoto, M.; Nishijima, K.; Futagami, T.; Hayato, Y.; Kanaya, Y.; Kaneyuki, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Kielczewska, D.; Doyle, R. A.; George, J. S.; Stachyra, A. L.; Wai, L. L.; Wilkes, R. J.; Young, K. K.

In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 82, No. 13, 29.03.1999, p. 2644-2648.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fukuda, Y, Hayakawa, T, Ichihara, E, Inoue, K, Ishihara, K, Ishino, H, Itow, Y, Kajita, T, Kameda, J, Kasuga, S, Kobayashi, K, Kobayashi, Y, Koshio, Y, Miura, M, Nakahata, M, Nakayama, S, Okada, A, Okumura, K, Sakurai, N, Shiozawa, M, Suzuki, Y, Takeuchi, Y, Totsuka, Y, Yamada, S, Earl, M, Habig, A, Kearns, E, Messier, MD, Scholberg, K, Stone, JL, Sulak, LR, Walter, CW, Goldhaber, M, Barszczak, T, Casper, D, Gajewski, W, Kropp, WR, Price, LR, Reines, F, Smy, M, Sobel, HW, Vagins, MR, Ganezer, KS, Keig, WE, Ellsworth, RW, Tasaka, S, Flanagan, JW, Kibayashi, A, Learned, JG, Matsuno, S, Stenger, VJ, Takemori, D, Ishii, T, Kanzaki, J, Kobayashi, T, Mine, S, Nakamura, K, Nishikawa, K, Oyama, Y, Sakai, A, Sakuda, M, Sasaki, O, Sakuda, M, Kohama, M, Suzuki, AT, Haines, TJ, Blaufuss, E, Kim, BK, Sanford, R, Svoboda, R, Chen, ML, Goodman, JA, Sullivan, GW, Hill, J, Jung, CK, Martens, K, Mauger, C, McGrew, C, Sharkey, E, Viren, B, Yanagisawa, C, Doki, W, Miyano, K, Okazawa, H, Saji, C, Takahata, M, Nagashima, Y, Takita, M, Yamaguchi, T, Yoshida, M, Kim, SB, Etoh, M, Fujita, K, Hasegawa, A, Hasegawa, T, Hatakeyama, S, Iwamoto, T, Koga, M, Maruyama, T, Ogawa, H, Shirai, J, Suzuki, A, Tsushima, F, Koshiba, M, Nemoto, M, Nishijima, K, Futagami, T, Hayato, Y, Kanaya, Y, Kaneyuki, K, Watanabe, Y, Kielczewska, D, Doyle, RA, George, JS, Stachyra, AL, Wai, LL, Wilkes, RJ & Young, KK 1999, 'Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande', Physical Review Letters, vol. 82, no. 13, pp. 2644-2648.
Fukuda Y, Hayakawa T, Ichihara E, Inoue K, Ishihara K, Ishino H et al. Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande. Physical Review Letters. 1999 Mar 29;82(13):2644-2648.
Fukuda, Y. ; Hayakawa, T. ; Ichihara, E. ; Inoue, K. ; Ishihara, K. ; Ishino, Hirokazu ; Itow, Y. ; Kajita, T. ; Kameda, J. ; Kasuga, S. ; Kobayashi, K. ; Kobayashi, Y. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Miura, M. ; Nakahata, M. ; Nakayama, S. ; Okada, A. ; Okumura, K. ; Sakurai, N. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Yamada, S. ; Earl, M. ; Habig, A. ; Kearns, E. ; Messier, M. D. ; Scholberg, K. ; Stone, J. L. ; Sulak, L. R. ; Walter, C. W. ; Goldhaber, M. ; Barszczak, T. ; Casper, D. ; Gajewski, W. ; Kropp, W. R. ; Price, L. R. ; Reines, F. ; Smy, M. ; Sobel, H. W. ; Vagins, M. R. ; Ganezer, K. S. ; Keig, W. E. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Tasaka, S. ; Flanagan, J. W. ; Kibayashi, A. ; Learned, J. G. ; Matsuno, S. ; Stenger, V. J. ; Takemori, D. ; Ishii, T. ; Kanzaki, J. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Mine, S. ; Nakamura, K. ; Nishikawa, K. ; Oyama, Y. ; Sakai, A. ; Sakuda, M. ; Sasaki, O. ; Sakuda, Makoto ; Kohama, M. ; Suzuki, A. T. ; Haines, T. J. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Kim, B. K. ; Sanford, R. ; Svoboda, R. ; Chen, M. L. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Hill, J. ; Jung, C. K. ; Martens, K. ; Mauger, C. ; McGrew, C. ; Sharkey, E. ; Viren, B. ; Yanagisawa, C. ; Doki, W. ; Miyano, K. ; Okazawa, H. ; Saji, C. ; Takahata, M. ; Nagashima, Y. ; Takita, M. ; Yamaguchi, T. ; Yoshida, M. ; Kim, S. B. ; Etoh, M. ; Fujita, K. ; Hasegawa, A. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Hatakeyama, S. ; Iwamoto, T. ; Koga, M. ; Maruyama, T. ; Ogawa, H. ; Shirai, J. ; Suzuki, A. ; Tsushima, F. ; Koshiba, M. ; Nemoto, M. ; Nishijima, K. ; Futagami, T. ; Hayato, Y. ; Kanaya, Y. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Watanabe, Y. ; Kielczewska, D. ; Doyle, R. A. ; George, J. S. ; Stachyra, A. L. ; Wai, L. L. ; Wilkes, R. J. ; Young, K. K. / Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande. In: Physical Review Letters. 1999 ; Vol. 82, No. 13. pp. 2644-2648.
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abstract = "A total of 614 upward throughgoing mouns of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is [1.74 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.02(sys)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1 compared to an expected flux of [1.97 ± 0.44(theor)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward throughgoing muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the νμ ↔ ντ oscillation hypothesis with sin2 2θ > 0.4 and 1 × 10-3 <1 × 10-1 <δm2 <1 × 10-1 eV2 at 90{\%} confidence level.",
author = "Y. Fukuda and T. Hayakawa and E. Ichihara and K. Inoue and K. Ishihara and Hirokazu Ishino and Y. Itow and T. Kajita and J. Kameda and S. Kasuga and K. Kobayashi and Y. Kobayashi and Yusuke Koshio and M. Miura and M. Nakahata and S. Nakayama and A. Okada and K. Okumura and N. Sakurai and M. Shiozawa and Y. Suzuki and Y. Takeuchi and Y. Totsuka and S. Yamada and M. Earl and A. Habig and E. Kearns and Messier, {M. D.} and K. Scholberg and Stone, {J. L.} and Sulak, {L. R.} and Walter, {C. W.} and M. Goldhaber and T. Barszczak and D. Casper and W. Gajewski and Kropp, {W. R.} and Price, {L. R.} and F. Reines and M. Smy and Sobel, {H. W.} and Vagins, {M. R.} and Ganezer, {K. S.} and Keig, {W. E.} and Ellsworth, {R. W.} and S. Tasaka and Flanagan, {J. W.} and A. Kibayashi and Learned, {J. G.} and S. Matsuno and Stenger, {V. J.} and D. Takemori and T. Ishii and J. Kanzaki and T. Kobayashi and S. Mine and K. Nakamura and K. Nishikawa and Y. Oyama and A. Sakai and M. Sakuda and O. Sasaki and Makoto Sakuda and M. Kohama and Suzuki, {A. T.} and Haines, {T. J.} and E. Blaufuss and Kim, {B. K.} and R. Sanford and R. Svoboda and Chen, {M. L.} and Goodman, {J. A.} and Sullivan, {G. W.} and J. Hill and Jung, {C. K.} and K. Martens and C. Mauger and C. McGrew and E. Sharkey and B. Viren and C. Yanagisawa and W. Doki and K. Miyano and H. Okazawa and C. Saji and M. Takahata and Y. Nagashima and M. Takita and T. Yamaguchi and M. Yoshida and Kim, {S. B.} and M. Etoh and K. Fujita and A. Hasegawa and T. Hasegawa and S. Hatakeyama and T. Iwamoto and M. Koga and T. Maruyama and H. Ogawa and J. Shirai and A. Suzuki and F. Tsushima and M. Koshiba and M. Nemoto and K. Nishijima and T. Futagami and Y. Hayato and Y. Kanaya and K. Kaneyuki and Y. Watanabe and D. Kielczewska and Doyle, {R. A.} and George, {J. S.} and Stachyra, {A. L.} and Wai, {L. L.} and Wilkes, {R. J.} and Young, {K. K.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward throughgoing muons by Super-Kamiokande

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Hayakawa, T.

AU - Ichihara, E.

AU - Inoue, K.

AU - Ishihara, K.

AU - Ishino, Hirokazu

AU - Itow, Y.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kameda, J.

AU - Kasuga, S.

AU - Kobayashi, K.

AU - Kobayashi, Y.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Miura, M.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Nakayama, S.

AU - Okada, A.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - Sakurai, N.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Yamada, S.

AU - Earl, M.

AU - Habig, A.

AU - Kearns, E.

AU - Messier, M. D.

AU - Scholberg, K.

AU - Stone, J. L.

AU - Sulak, L. R.

AU - Walter, C. W.

AU - Goldhaber, M.

AU - Barszczak, T.

AU - Casper, D.

AU - Gajewski, W.

AU - Kropp, W. R.

AU - Price, L. R.

AU - Reines, F.

AU - Smy, M.

AU - Sobel, H. W.

AU - Vagins, M. R.

AU - Ganezer, K. S.

AU - Keig, W. E.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Tasaka, S.

AU - Flanagan, J. W.

AU - Kibayashi, A.

AU - Learned, J. G.

AU - Matsuno, S.

AU - Stenger, V. J.

AU - Takemori, D.

AU - Ishii, T.

AU - Kanzaki, J.

AU - Kobayashi, T.

AU - Mine, S.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Nishikawa, K.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Sakai, A.

AU - Sakuda, M.

AU - Sasaki, O.

AU - Sakuda, Makoto

AU - Kohama, M.

AU - Suzuki, A. T.

AU - Haines, T. J.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Kim, B. K.

AU - Sanford, R.

AU - Svoboda, R.

AU - Chen, M. L.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Hill, J.

AU - Jung, C. K.

AU - Martens, K.

AU - Mauger, C.

AU - McGrew, C.

AU - Sharkey, E.

AU - Viren, B.

AU - Yanagisawa, C.

AU - Doki, W.

AU - Miyano, K.

AU - Okazawa, H.

AU - Saji, C.

AU - Takahata, M.

AU - Nagashima, Y.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Yamaguchi, T.

AU - Yoshida, M.

AU - Kim, S. B.

AU - Etoh, M.

AU - Fujita, K.

AU - Hasegawa, A.

AU - Hasegawa, T.

AU - Hatakeyama, S.

AU - Iwamoto, T.

AU - Koga, M.

AU - Maruyama, T.

AU - Ogawa, H.

AU - Shirai, J.

AU - Suzuki, A.

AU - Tsushima, F.

AU - Koshiba, M.

AU - Nemoto, M.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Futagami, T.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Kanaya, Y.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Watanabe, Y.

AU - Kielczewska, D.

AU - Doyle, R. A.

AU - George, J. S.

AU - Stachyra, A. L.

AU - Wai, L. L.

AU - Wilkes, R. J.

AU - Young, K. K.

PY - 1999/3/29

Y1 - 1999/3/29

N2 - A total of 614 upward throughgoing mouns of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is [1.74 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.02(sys)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1 compared to an expected flux of [1.97 ± 0.44(theor)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward throughgoing muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the νμ ↔ ντ oscillation hypothesis with sin2 2θ > 0.4 and 1 × 10-3 <1 × 10-1 <δm2 <1 × 10-1 eV2 at 90% confidence level.

AB - A total of 614 upward throughgoing mouns of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is [1.74 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.02(sys)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1 compared to an expected flux of [1.97 ± 0.44(theor)] × 10-13cm-2s-1sr-1. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward throughgoing muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the νμ ↔ ντ oscillation hypothesis with sin2 2θ > 0.4 and 1 × 10-3 <1 × 10-1 <δm2 <1 × 10-1 eV2 at 90% confidence level.

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EP - 2648

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 13

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