Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III

S. Hatakeyama, T. Hara, Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, K. Inoue, K. Ishihara, Hirokazu Ishino, S. Joukou, T. Kajita, S. Kasuga, Yusuke Koshio, T. Kumita, K. Matsumoto, M. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, K. Okumura, A. Sakai, M. Shiozawa, J. Suzuki, Y. SuzukiT. Tomoeda, Y. Totsuka, K. S. Hirata, K. Kihara, Y. Oyama, M. Koshiba, K. Nishijima, T. Horiuchi, K. Fujita, M. Koga, T. Maruyama, A. Suzuki, M. Mori, T. Suda, A. T. Suzuki, T. Ishizuka, K. Miyano, H. Okazawa, Y. Nagashima, M. Takita, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Hayato, K. Kaneyuki, T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, T. Tanimori, S. Tasaka, E. Ichihara, S. Miyamoto, K. Nishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

143 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The flux of upward through-going muons of minimum (mean) threshold energy >1.6 (3.0) GeV is measured, based on a total of 372 events observed by the Kamiokande II + III detector during 2456 detector live days. The observed muon flux was φobs = [1.94 ± 0.10(stat.)-0.06+0.07sys.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1, which is compared to an expected value of φ;theo = [2.46 ± 0.54(theo.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The observation is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. The zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muons supports the previous indication of neutrino oscillations made by Kamiokande using sub- and multi-GeV atmospheric neutrino events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2016-2019
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume81
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

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zenith
muons
neutrinos
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indication
oscillations
thresholds
predictions
energy

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  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Hatakeyama, S., Hara, T., Fukuda, Y., Hayakawa, T., Inoue, K., Ishihara, K., ... Nishikawa, K. (1998). Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III. Physical Review Letters, 81(10), 2016-2019.

Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III. / Hatakeyama, S.; Hara, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, Hirokazu; Joukou, S.; Kajita, T.; Kasuga, S.; Koshio, Yusuke; Kumita, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Okumura, K.; Sakai, A.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Tomoeda, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Hirata, K. S.; Kihara, K.; Oyama, Y.; Koshiba, M.; Nishijima, K.; Horiuchi, T.; Fujita, K.; Koga, M.; Maruyama, T.; Suzuki, A.; Mori, M.; Suda, T.; Suzuki, A. T.; Ishizuka, T.; Miyano, K.; Okazawa, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Takita, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hayato, Y.; Kaneyuki, K.; Suzuki, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Tasaka, S.; Ichihara, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Nishikawa, K.

In: Physical Review Letters, Vol. 81, No. 10, 1998, p. 2016-2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hatakeyama, S, Hara, T, Fukuda, Y, Hayakawa, T, Inoue, K, Ishihara, K, Ishino, H, Joukou, S, Kajita, T, Kasuga, S, Koshio, Y, Kumita, T, Matsumoto, K, Nakahata, M, Nakamura, K, Okumura, K, Sakai, A, Shiozawa, M, Suzuki, J, Suzuki, Y, Tomoeda, T, Totsuka, Y, Hirata, KS, Kihara, K, Oyama, Y, Koshiba, M, Nishijima, K, Horiuchi, T, Fujita, K, Koga, M, Maruyama, T, Suzuki, A, Mori, M, Suda, T, Suzuki, AT, Ishizuka, T, Miyano, K, Okazawa, H, Nagashima, Y, Takita, M, Yamaguchi, T, Hayato, Y, Kaneyuki, K, Suzuki, T, Takeuchi, Y, Tanimori, T, Tasaka, S, Ichihara, E, Miyamoto, S & Nishikawa, K 1998, 'Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III', Physical Review Letters, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 2016-2019.
Hatakeyama S, Hara T, Fukuda Y, Hayakawa T, Inoue K, Ishihara K et al. Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III. Physical Review Letters. 1998;81(10):2016-2019.
Hatakeyama, S. ; Hara, T. ; Fukuda, Y. ; Hayakawa, T. ; Inoue, K. ; Ishihara, K. ; Ishino, Hirokazu ; Joukou, S. ; Kajita, T. ; Kasuga, S. ; Koshio, Yusuke ; Kumita, T. ; Matsumoto, K. ; Nakahata, M. ; Nakamura, K. ; Okumura, K. ; Sakai, A. ; Shiozawa, M. ; Suzuki, J. ; Suzuki, Y. ; Tomoeda, T. ; Totsuka, Y. ; Hirata, K. S. ; Kihara, K. ; Oyama, Y. ; Koshiba, M. ; Nishijima, K. ; Horiuchi, T. ; Fujita, K. ; Koga, M. ; Maruyama, T. ; Suzuki, A. ; Mori, M. ; Suda, T. ; Suzuki, A. T. ; Ishizuka, T. ; Miyano, K. ; Okazawa, H. ; Nagashima, Y. ; Takita, M. ; Yamaguchi, T. ; Hayato, Y. ; Kaneyuki, K. ; Suzuki, T. ; Takeuchi, Y. ; Tanimori, T. ; Tasaka, S. ; Ichihara, E. ; Miyamoto, S. ; Nishikawa, K. / Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III. In: Physical Review Letters. 1998 ; Vol. 81, No. 10. pp. 2016-2019.
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abstract = "The flux of upward through-going muons of minimum (mean) threshold energy >1.6 (3.0) GeV is measured, based on a total of 372 events observed by the Kamiokande II + III detector during 2456 detector live days. The observed muon flux was φobs = [1.94 ± 0.10(stat.)-0.06+0.07sys.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1, which is compared to an expected value of φ;theo = [2.46 ± 0.54(theo.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The observation is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. The zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muons supports the previous indication of neutrino oscillations made by Kamiokande using sub- and multi-GeV atmospheric neutrino events.",
author = "S. Hatakeyama and T. Hara and Y. Fukuda and T. Hayakawa and K. Inoue and K. Ishihara and Hirokazu Ishino and S. Joukou and T. Kajita and S. Kasuga and Yusuke Koshio and T. Kumita and K. Matsumoto and M. Nakahata and K. Nakamura and K. Okumura and A. Sakai and M. Shiozawa and J. Suzuki and Y. Suzuki and T. Tomoeda and Y. Totsuka and Hirata, {K. S.} and K. Kihara and Y. Oyama and M. Koshiba and K. Nishijima and T. Horiuchi and K. Fujita and M. Koga and T. Maruyama and A. Suzuki and M. Mori and T. Suda and Suzuki, {A. T.} and T. Ishizuka and K. Miyano and H. Okazawa and Y. Nagashima and M. Takita and T. Yamaguchi and Y. Hayato and K. Kaneyuki and T. Suzuki and Y. Takeuchi and T. Tanimori and S. Tasaka and E. Ichihara and S. Miyamoto and K. Nishikawa",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons in kamiokande II + III

AU - Hatakeyama, S.

AU - Hara, T.

AU - Fukuda, Y.

AU - Hayakawa, T.

AU - Inoue, K.

AU - Ishihara, K.

AU - Ishino, Hirokazu

AU - Joukou, S.

AU - Kajita, T.

AU - Kasuga, S.

AU - Koshio, Yusuke

AU - Kumita, T.

AU - Matsumoto, K.

AU - Nakahata, M.

AU - Nakamura, K.

AU - Okumura, K.

AU - Sakai, A.

AU - Shiozawa, M.

AU - Suzuki, J.

AU - Suzuki, Y.

AU - Tomoeda, T.

AU - Totsuka, Y.

AU - Hirata, K. S.

AU - Kihara, K.

AU - Oyama, Y.

AU - Koshiba, M.

AU - Nishijima, K.

AU - Horiuchi, T.

AU - Fujita, K.

AU - Koga, M.

AU - Maruyama, T.

AU - Suzuki, A.

AU - Mori, M.

AU - Suda, T.

AU - Suzuki, A. T.

AU - Ishizuka, T.

AU - Miyano, K.

AU - Okazawa, H.

AU - Nagashima, Y.

AU - Takita, M.

AU - Yamaguchi, T.

AU - Hayato, Y.

AU - Kaneyuki, K.

AU - Suzuki, T.

AU - Takeuchi, Y.

AU - Tanimori, T.

AU - Tasaka, S.

AU - Ichihara, E.

AU - Miyamoto, S.

AU - Nishikawa, K.

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - The flux of upward through-going muons of minimum (mean) threshold energy >1.6 (3.0) GeV is measured, based on a total of 372 events observed by the Kamiokande II + III detector during 2456 detector live days. The observed muon flux was φobs = [1.94 ± 0.10(stat.)-0.06+0.07sys.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1, which is compared to an expected value of φ;theo = [2.46 ± 0.54(theo.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The observation is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. The zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muons supports the previous indication of neutrino oscillations made by Kamiokande using sub- and multi-GeV atmospheric neutrino events.

AB - The flux of upward through-going muons of minimum (mean) threshold energy >1.6 (3.0) GeV is measured, based on a total of 372 events observed by the Kamiokande II + III detector during 2456 detector live days. The observed muon flux was φobs = [1.94 ± 0.10(stat.)-0.06+0.07sys.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1, which is compared to an expected value of φ;theo = [2.46 ± 0.54(theo.)] × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The observation is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. The zenith-angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muons supports the previous indication of neutrino oscillations made by Kamiokande using sub- and multi-GeV atmospheric neutrino events.

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M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0346571945

VL - 81

SP - 2016

EP - 2019

JO - Physical Review Letters

JF - Physical Review Letters

SN - 0031-9007

IS - 10

ER -