Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students

Psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education

Hitomi Kataoka, Norio Koide, Koji Ochi, Mohammadreza Hojat, Joseph S. Gonnella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

135 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school. METHOD: The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Factor analysis confirmed the three components of "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "ability to stand in patient's shoes," which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1192-1197
Number of pages6
JournalAcademic Medicine
Volume84
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2009

Fingerprint

Medical Education
Medical Students
empathy
Psychometrics
psychometrics
medical student
Medical Schools
gender
education
physician
Students
Physicians
school
Statistical Factor Analysis
factor analysis
student
Cultural Characteristics
Aptitude
Shoes
construct validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Education

Cite this

Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students : Psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education. / Kataoka, Hitomi; Koide, Norio; Ochi, Koji; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S.

In: Academic Medicine, Vol. 84, No. 9, 09.2009, p. 1192-1197.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kataoka, Hitomi ; Koide, Norio ; Ochi, Koji ; Hojat, Mohammadreza ; Gonnella, Joseph S. / Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students : Psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education. In: Academic Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 84, No. 9. pp. 1192-1197.
@article{a6a1df1f6b054c3282e8d3d3095f6020,
title = "Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students: Psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education",
abstract = "PURPOSE: To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school. METHOD: The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Factor analysis confirmed the three components of {"}perspective taking,{"} {"}compassionate care,{"} and {"}ability to stand in patient's shoes,{"} which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.",
author = "Hitomi Kataoka and Norio Koide and Koji Ochi and Mohammadreza Hojat and Gonnella, {Joseph S.}",
year = "2009",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b180d4",
language = "English",
volume = "84",
pages = "1192--1197",
journal = "Academic Medicine",
issn = "1040-2446",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measurement of empathy among Japanese medical students

T2 - Psychometrics and score differences by gender and level of medical education

AU - Kataoka, Hitomi

AU - Koide, Norio

AU - Ochi, Koji

AU - Hojat, Mohammadreza

AU - Gonnella, Joseph S.

PY - 2009/9

Y1 - 2009/9

N2 - PURPOSE: To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school. METHOD: The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Factor analysis confirmed the three components of "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "ability to stand in patient's shoes," which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.

AB - PURPOSE: To examine psychometric properties of a Japanese translation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and to study differences in empathy scores between men and women, and students in different years of medical school. METHOD: The student version of the JSPE was translated into Japanese using back-translation procedures and administered to 400 Japanese students from all six years at the Okayama University Medical School. Item-total score correlations were calculated. Factor analysis was used to examine the underlying components of the Japanese version of the JSPE. Cronbach coefficient alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency aspect of reliability of the instrument. Finally, empathy scores for men and women were compared using t test, and score differences by year of medical school were examined using analysis of variance. RESULTS: Factor analysis confirmed the three components of "perspective taking," "compassionate care," and "ability to stand in patient's shoes," which had emerged in American and Mexican medical students. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .80. Women outscored men, and empathy scores increased as students progressed through medical school in this cross-sectional study. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Japanese translated version of the JSPE for medical students. Cultural characteristics and educational differences in Japanese medical schools that influence empathic behaviors are described, and implications for cross-cultural study of empathy are discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70349119933&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70349119933&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b180d4

DO - 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b180d4

M3 - Article

VL - 84

SP - 1192

EP - 1197

JO - Academic Medicine

JF - Academic Medicine

SN - 1040-2446

IS - 9

ER -