Measurement of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium and their isotopic composition with the BESS experiment

J. Z. Wang, E. S. Seo, K. Anraku, M. Fujikawa, M. Imori, T. Maeno, N. Matsui, H. Matsunaga, M. Motoki, S. Orito, T. Saeki, T. Sanuki, I. Ueda, Koji Yoshimura, Y. Makida, J. Suzuki, K. Tanaka, A. Yamamoto, T. Yoshida, T. MitsuiH. Matsumoto, M. Nozaki, M. Sasaki, J. Mitchell, A. Moiseev, J. Ormes, R. Streitmatter, J. Nishimura, Y. Yajima, T. Yamagami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

94 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium spectra have been measured by the Balloon Borne Experiment with a Superconducting Solenoid Spectrometer (BESS), which has been flown from Lynn Lake, Manitoba, Canada, annually since 1993. The BESS experiment provides excellent rigidity measurement and precise particle identification with a large geometric acceptance. We present here the hydrogen and helium nuclei energy spectra from 0.2 to 10 GeV nucleon-1 and their isotopic composition from 0.2 to about 1 GeV nucleon-1 for the first BESS flight. This provides the first simultaneous measurements of the cosmic-ray secondaries, deuterons, and 3He, with their primaries, protons, and 4He over this energy range in a period of solar minimum. In this paper, we have achieved significant improvements in data analysis in the following aspects. First, the latest available cross-section data and their parameterizations were utilized in the simulation code developed for this study. Second, a complete simulation was performed for both protons and heavy ions: the δ-ray effect was properly simulated and showed a large influence on the measurement of heavy ions at high energies. Third, the secondary particle correction, which dominates the systematic uncertainty at low energies for singly charged particles, protons and deuterons, was calculated iteratively with the simultaneously measured primary cosmic-ray spectra. In general, the results of this experiment are consistent with other recent measurements using balloon-borne or satellite experiments, but with better precision. The measured spectra of protons, deuterons, 3He, and 4He and their corresponding ratios are compared with different interstellar/heliospheric propagation calculations, which were derived to fit observations of heavy nuclei. The overall good agreement indicates that the propagation history for light cosmic-ray elements, protons, deuterons, and helium nuclei is similar to that of the heavy nuclei. The 2H/1H ratio is sensitive to the propagation models, and our results show a tendency of better agreement with the reacceleration model than the standard leaky-box model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-259
Number of pages16
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume564
Issue number1 I
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2002
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

BESS (satellite)
cosmic ray
helium
cosmic rays
isotopic composition
deuterons
hydrogen
protons
energy
heavy nuclei
balloons
experiment
propagation
heavy ions
secondary cosmic rays
Manitoba
ion
rigidity
primary cosmic rays
nuclei

Keywords

  • Abundances
  • Balloons
  • Cosmic rays
  • Elementary particles
  • Nuclear reactions
  • Nucleosynthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics

Cite this

Wang, J. Z., Seo, E. S., Anraku, K., Fujikawa, M., Imori, M., Maeno, T., ... Yamagami, T. (2002). Measurement of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium and their isotopic composition with the BESS experiment. Astrophysical Journal, 564(1 I), 244-259. https://doi.org/10.1086/324140

Measurement of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium and their isotopic composition with the BESS experiment. / Wang, J. Z.; Seo, E. S.; Anraku, K.; Fujikawa, M.; Imori, M.; Maeno, T.; Matsui, N.; Matsunaga, H.; Motoki, M.; Orito, S.; Saeki, T.; Sanuki, T.; Ueda, I.; Yoshimura, Koji; Makida, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, T.; Mitsui, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Nozaki, M.; Sasaki, M.; Mitchell, J.; Moiseev, A.; Ormes, J.; Streitmatter, R.; Nishimura, J.; Yajima, Y.; Yamagami, T.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 564, No. 1 I, 01.01.2002, p. 244-259.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wang, JZ, Seo, ES, Anraku, K, Fujikawa, M, Imori, M, Maeno, T, Matsui, N, Matsunaga, H, Motoki, M, Orito, S, Saeki, T, Sanuki, T, Ueda, I, Yoshimura, K, Makida, Y, Suzuki, J, Tanaka, K, Yamamoto, A, Yoshida, T, Mitsui, T, Matsumoto, H, Nozaki, M, Sasaki, M, Mitchell, J, Moiseev, A, Ormes, J, Streitmatter, R, Nishimura, J, Yajima, Y & Yamagami, T 2002, 'Measurement of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium and their isotopic composition with the BESS experiment', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 564, no. 1 I, pp. 244-259. https://doi.org/10.1086/324140
Wang, J. Z. ; Seo, E. S. ; Anraku, K. ; Fujikawa, M. ; Imori, M. ; Maeno, T. ; Matsui, N. ; Matsunaga, H. ; Motoki, M. ; Orito, S. ; Saeki, T. ; Sanuki, T. ; Ueda, I. ; Yoshimura, Koji ; Makida, Y. ; Suzuki, J. ; Tanaka, K. ; Yamamoto, A. ; Yoshida, T. ; Mitsui, T. ; Matsumoto, H. ; Nozaki, M. ; Sasaki, M. ; Mitchell, J. ; Moiseev, A. ; Ormes, J. ; Streitmatter, R. ; Nishimura, J. ; Yajima, Y. ; Yamagami, T. / Measurement of cosmic-ray hydrogen and helium and their isotopic composition with the BESS experiment. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2002 ; Vol. 564, No. 1 I. pp. 244-259.
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AU - Wang, J. Z.

AU - Seo, E. S.

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AU - Fujikawa, M.

AU - Imori, M.

AU - Maeno, T.

AU - Matsui, N.

AU - Matsunaga, H.

AU - Motoki, M.

AU - Orito, S.

AU - Saeki, T.

AU - Sanuki, T.

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AU - Yoshimura, Koji

AU - Makida, Y.

AU - Suzuki, J.

AU - Tanaka, K.

AU - Yamamoto, A.

AU - Yoshida, T.

AU - Mitsui, T.

AU - Matsumoto, H.

AU - Nozaki, M.

AU - Sasaki, M.

AU - Mitchell, J.

AU - Moiseev, A.

AU - Ormes, J.

AU - Streitmatter, R.

AU - Nishimura, J.

AU - Yajima, Y.

AU - Yamagami, T.

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