The authors examined the timing and causes of titanium miniplate removal after maxillofacial trauma surgery. The authors performed a retrospective study of maxillofacial fracture patients in whom maxillofacial osteosynthesis miniplates were inserted or removed at the Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, between 2008 and 2017. Predictive variables were age, sex, fracture site distribution, and time to miniplate removal with or without complications in relation to primary outcome variables. Among 185 patients, 440 miniplates were inserted and 272 miniplates were removed. In total, 116 patients (73.4%) had 282 miniplates (64.1%) removed, of which 4.8% fracture sites and 5.7% miniplates were removed because of complications. The mean time to miniplate removal was 630.9 and 258.0 days in patients with and without complications, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in miniplate removal and miniplate retention relative to age and sex. This difference was not related to the presence or absence of sex- or age-related complications. The miniplates as osteosynthesis material were safe and useful for a long period of time with relatively few complications. Because complications requiring miniplate removal occurred within 1 or after 5 years postoperatively, osteosynthesis miniplate treatments should be decided while considering the patient's age and sex. Long-term follow-up is recommended for miniplates that remain implanted for >1 year.
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