MAPK pathway alterations correlate with poor survival and drive resistance to therapy in patients with lung cancers driven by ROS1 fusions

Hiroki Sato, Adam J. Schoenfeld, Evan Siau, Yue Christine Lu, Huichun Tai, Ken Suzawa, Daisuke Kubota, Allan J.W. Lui, Besnik Qeriqi, Marissa Mattar, Michael Offin, Masakiyo Sakaguchi, Shinichi Toyooka, Alexander Drilon, Neal X. Rosen, Mark G. Kris, David Solit, Elisa de Stanchina, Monika A. Davare, Gregory J. RielyMarc Ladanyi, Romel Somwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) provide significant benefit in lung adenocarcinoma patients with ROS1 fusions. However, as observed with all targeted therapies, resistance arises. Detecting mechanisms of acquired resistance (AR) is crucial to finding novel therapies and improve patient outcomes. Experimental Design: ROS1 fusions were expressed in HBEC and NIH-3T3 cells either by cDNA overexpression (CD74/ROS1, SLC34A2/ROS1) or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genomic engineering (EZR/ROS1). We reviewed targeted large-panel sequencing data (using the MSK-IMPACT assay) patients treated with ROS1 TKIs, and genetic alterations hypothesized to confer AR were modeled in these cell lines. Results: Eight of the 75 patients with a ROS1 fusion had a concurrent MAPK pathway alteration and this correlated with shorter overall survival. In addition, the induction of ROS1 fusions stimulated activation of MEK/ERK signaling with minimal effects on AKT signaling, suggesting the importance of the MAPK pathway in driving ROS1 fusion-positive cancers. Of 8 patients, 2 patients harbored novel in-frame deletions in MEK1 (MEK1delE41_L54) and MEKK1 (MEKK1delH907_C916) that were acquired after ROS1 TKIs, and 2 patients harbored NF1 loss-of-function mutations. Expression of MEK1del or MEKK1del, and knockdown of NF1 in ROS1 fusion-positive cells activated MEK/ERK signaling and conferred resistance to ROS1 TKIs. Combined targeting of ROS1 and MEK inhibited growth of cells expressing both ROS1 fusion and MEK1del. Conclusions: We demonstrate that downstream activation of the MAPK pathway can mediate of innate acquired resistance to ROS1 TKIs and that patients harboring ROS1 fusion and concurrent downstream MAPK pathway alterations have worse survival. Our findings suggest a treatment strategy to target both aberrations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2932-2945
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume26
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Sato, H., Schoenfeld, A. J., Siau, E., Lu, Y. C., Tai, H., Suzawa, K., Kubota, D., Lui, A. J. W., Qeriqi, B., Mattar, M., Offin, M., Sakaguchi, M., Toyooka, S., Drilon, A., Rosen, N. X., Kris, M. G., Solit, D., de Stanchina, E., Davare, M. A., ... Somwar, R. (2020). MAPK pathway alterations correlate with poor survival and drive resistance to therapy in patients with lung cancers driven by ROS1 fusions. Clinical Cancer Research, 26(12), 2932-2945. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3321