Low-temperature-modulated fruit ripening is independent of ethylene in 'Sanuki Gold' kiwifruit

Eric G. Mworia, Takashi Yoshikawa, Nadiah Salikon, Chisato Oda, William O. Asiche, Naoki Yokotani, Daigo Abe, Koichiro Ushijima, Ryohei Nakano, Yasutaka Kubo

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73 Citations (Scopus)


Fruit ripening in response to treatments with propylene, 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP), and low temperature was characterized in 'Sanuki Gold' kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis Planch. Propylene treatment immediately induced rapid fruit softening, increased AC-PG (polygalacturonase) and AC-EXP (expansin) mRNA accumulation, and stimulated an increase in the soluble solid concentration (SSC) and a decrease in titratable acidity (TA). After 3d exposure to propylene, ethylene production and AC-PL (pectate lyase) mRNA accumulation were observed. 1-MCP treatment after 24h exposure to propylene eliminated AC-PG mRNA accumulation and suppressed continued changes in SSC and TA. Application of 1-MCP at the start of the treatment, followed by continuous propylene exposure, markedly delayed fruit softening, and the expression of the cell wall-modifying genes, and changes in the SSC and TA, indicating that kiwifruit become insensitive to ethylene at least for 3d following 1-MCP exposure. Surprisingly, significant fruit softening, mRNA accumulation of AC-PG, AC-PL, and AC-EXP, and decreased TA were observed without ethylene production in intact fruit stored at low temperature for 1 month, but not in fruit stored at room temperature. Repeated 1-MCP treatments (twice a week) failed to inhibit the changes that occurred in low temperature storage. These observations indicate that low temperature modulates the ripening of kiwifruit in an ethylene-independent manner, suggesting that kiwifruit ripening is inducible by either ethylene or low temperature signals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)963-971
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of experimental botany
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012


  • 1-MCP
  • Ethylene
  • fruit ripening
  • kiwifruit
  • low-temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science


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