Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) confined to the muscularis mucosae (MM) or up to 200 µm of the submucosa (SM1) confers the risk for lymph node metastasis, and is defined as relative indication for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) by the Japan Esophageal Society guidelines. Although additional surgical treatment after ESD is recommended, long-term outcomes of ESD compared with those of surgery have not been clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of ESD and surgery for cN0M0 relative indication lesions of ESCC. Methods: Between 2006 and 2016, patients with relative indication lesions of ESCC who underwent ESD or surgery at nine participating hospitals were examined retrospectively. Using propensity score matching, we evaluated survival curves for and hazard ratios associated with endoscopic submucosal dissection and surgery. Results: In total, 155 lesions in the ESD group and 106 lesions in the surgery group met the pathological criteria of relative indication for endoscopic resection. After matching, 50 matched pairs of patients who underwent ESD or surgery were selected. The 5-year overall survival rates were 84.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 68–93] in the ESD group and 79% [95% CI 60–90] in the surgery group. The hazard ratio of mortality for ESD compared with that for surgery estimated by Cox regression analysis was 0.79 (95% CI 0.3–2.06, p = 0.63). Conclusions: Compared with surgery, ESD does not compromise long-term outcomes. ESD alone or ESD with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may be an option for the treatment of MM and SM1 ESCC.
- Endoscopic submucosal dissection
- Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
- Propensity score
ASJC Scopus subject areas