Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein mainly produced by hepatocytes, it has also been proposed to be a pro-inflammatory adipokine. Obesity and the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) are reportedly associated with elevated levels of LPS in plasma and free fatty acids (FFAs) in white adipose tissue (WAT). We examined whether circulating LPS or local FFAs are responsible for the HFDinduced increase of LBP in WAT. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a normal-fat diet (NFD) or an HFD. The mRNA levels in the liver and mesenteric WAT (mWAT), total FFA content in mWAT, and LBP and LPS concentrations in plasma were determined. The Lbp mRNA level in mWAT was higher in mice fed the HFD than in those fed the NFD for 3, 7, or 28 days or 14 weeks, whereas the hepatic Lbp mRNA level did not differ between the groups. The Lbp mRNA level in mWAT was also increased by the HFD in germ-free mice, which do not have gut microbiota, the source of LPS. The plasma LPS level did not show a significant correlation with the mWAT Lbp mRNA level. The total FFA content in mWAT was higher in mice fed the HFD than in those fed the NFD and positively correlated with the Lbp mRNA level. Supplementation with palmitic acid increased the Lbp mRNA level in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We propose that local FFAs, but not circulating LPS, are the trigger for increased Lbp expression in mWAT of mice fed the HFD.
- High-fat diet
- Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein
- White adipose tissue
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology