Lmx1b activation in axolotl limb regeneration

Sakiya Yamamoto, Rena Kashimoto, Saya Furukawa, Ayaka Ohashi, Akira Satoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Axolotls can regenerate their limbs. In their limb regeneration process, developmental genes are re-expressed and reorganize the developmental axes, in which the position-specific genes are properly re-expressed. However, how such position specificity is reorganized in the regeneration processes has not been clarified. To address this issue, we focused on the reactivation process of Lmx1b, which determines the limb dorsal identity in many animals. Results: Here, we show that Lmx1b expression is maintained in the dorsal skin before amputation and is activated after amputation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that only cells located in the dorsal side prior to limb amputation could reactivate Lmx1b after limb amputation. We also found that Lmx1b activation was achieved by nerve presence. The nerve factors, BMP2 + FGF2 + FGF8 (B2FF), consistently reactivate Lmx1b when applied to the dorsal skin. Conclusions: These results imply that the retained Lmx1b expression in the intact skin plays a role in positional memory, which instruct cells about the spatial positioning before amputation. This memory is reactivated by nerves or nerve factors that can trigger the entire limb regeneration process. Our findings highlight the role of nerves in amphibian limb regeneration, including both the initiation of limb regeneration and the reactivation of position-specific gene expression.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • accessory limb model (ALM)
  • axolotl
  • dorsoventral
  • limb regeneration
  • Lmx1b
  • nerve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology


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