Objectives: In peripheral macrophages, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is reported to be involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. However, the contribution of TG2 to microglial phagocytosis has not been investigated. In this study, using a microglial cell line, BV-2, we examined the changes in TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis in cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: Cells of the mouse microglial cell line BV-2 were stimulated by LPS with or without cystamine, an inhibitor of TG enzyme activity, for 24 h. TG2 expression was measured by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. TG activity was evaluated using biotinylated pentylamine as a substrate. Pinocytosis was determined by uptake of 1-μm fluorescent microbeads. Phagocytosis was assessed by uptake of dead cells, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which were pretreated with H2O2 for 24 h. Results: Phagocytosis of dead cells and pinocytosis of fluorescent microbeads were up-regulated by LPS stimulation together with TG2 expression. Blockade of TG enzyme activity by cystamine suppressed TG2 expression, phagocytosis and pinocytosis. Conclusions: These results suggested that LPS-induced TG2 was involved in the mechanism of pinocytosis and phagocytosis in microglia.
- Transglutaminase 2
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems