The lipid and fatty acid profiles of eight Helicobacter spp. (H. nemestrinae, H. acinonyx, H. canis, Helicobacter sp. strain CLO-3, 'H. rappini' [Flexispira rappini], H. pametensis, Helicobacter sp. strain Bird- B, and Helicobacter sp. strain Bird-C) and the fatty acid profiles of five additional species (H. pylori, H. felis, H. muridarum, H. mustelae, and H. fennelliae) were analyzed and compared. A heterologous fatty acid profile was observed among the Helicobacter spp., and on that basis the species could be divided into two groups. Group A had 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid (19:0cyc) and tetradecanoic acid (14:0) as the major fatty acids, and group B characteristically lacked the 19:0cyc and had hexadecanoic acid (16:0) and octadecenoic (18:1) acids as the major fatty acids. The species of group A are primarily gastric colonizers, and those of group B are primarily intestinal colonizers. Seven of the eight species studied showed the unusual and characteristic presence of cholesteryl glucosides (CGs), and most of these seven showed a very large amount (9.7 to 27.4% of the weight of total extractable lipid). The types of CGs and their distribution in different species were as follows: cholesteryl-6-O-acyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (cholesteryl-6-O-tetradecanoyl-α-D-glucopyranoside in H. nemestrinae and mainly cholesteryl-6-O-dodecanoyl-α-D-glucopyranoside in 'H. rappini'), cholesteryl-α-D-glucopyranoside (H. nemestrinae, H. acinonyx, H. canis, Helicobacter sp. strain CLO-3, and 'H. rappini'), and cholesteryl-6-O- phosphatidyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (H. nemestrinae, H. acinonyx, H. canis, and Helicobacter sp. strain CLO-3). Besides this, we could also detect cholesteryl acyl glucoside in H. acinonyx, cholesteryl glucoside in Helicobacter sp. strains Bird-B and -C, and cholesteryl phosphatidyl glucoside in 'H. rappini' and Helicobacter sp. strain Bird-C. A selective accumulation of free cholesterol was observed in the neutral lipid fractions. On the basis of the detection of CGs in 11 of the 13 species studied so far, the presence of CGs appears to be a characteristic feature of the genus Helicobacter. In view of this and also because of a simple and rapid detection method described herein, the CGs can be used as a valuable chemotaxonomic marker.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology