Lipid peroxidation modification of protein generates Nε-(4- oxononanoyl)lysine as a pro-inflammatory ligand

Takahiro Shibata, Yuuki Shimozu, Chika Wakita, Noriyuki Shibata, Makio Kobayashi, Sachiko Machida, Rina Kato, Hiroyuki Itabe, Xiaochun Zhu, Lawrence M. Sayre, Koji Uchida

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30 Citations (Scopus)


4-Oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE), a peroxidation product of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, covalently reacts with lysine residues to generate a 4-ketoamide-type ONE-lysine adduct, Nε-(4-oxononanoyl)lysine (ONL). Using an ONL-coupled protein as the immunogen, we raised the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 9K3 directed to the ONL and conclusively demonstrated that the ONL was produced during the oxidative modification of a low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. In addition, we observed that the ONL was present in atherosclerotic lesions, in which an intense immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the vascular endothelial cells and macrophage- and vascular smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells. Using liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we also established a highly sensitive method for quantification of the ONLand confirmed that theONLwas indeed formed during the lipid peroxidation-mediated modification of protein in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the biological implications for ONL formation, we examined the recognition of ONL by the scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). UsingCHOcells stably expressing LOX-1, we evaluated the ability of ONL to compete with the acetylated LDL and found that both the ONE-modified and ONL-coupled proteins inhibited the binding and uptake of the modified LDL. In addition, we demonstrated that the ONL-coupled protein was incorporated into differentiated THP-1 cells via LOX-1. Finally, we examined the effect of ONL on the expression of the inflammation-associated gene in THP-1 and observed that the ONL-coupled proteins significantly induced the expression of atherogenesis-related genes, such as the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in a LOX-1-dependent manner. Thus, ONL was identified to be a potential endogenous ligand for LOX-1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19943-19957
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Jun 3 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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