Silicon (Si) is a beneficial element for plants, which helps to mitigate various biotic and abiotic stresses. Since the last review on Si published in this journal in 2004, great progress has been made in understanding transport system of Si in different plant species. The discovery of two different transporters for Si (Lsi1 and Lsi2) in rice led to intensive investigation of Si transporters in other plant species. Lsi1 belongs to the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) subfamily in the aquaporin (AQP) family and functions as an influx transporter for Si. By contrast, Lsi2 belongs to the anion transporter superfamily and functions as an efflux transporter of Si. They are polarly localized at the distal and proximal sides, respectively, of both exodermis and endodermis of rice roots and are required for efficient uptake of Si. So far, homologs of Lsi1 and Lsi2 are identified not only in monocots, but also in dicots, which greatly differ in Si accumulation in the aboveground parts. However, the expression pattern, cell-type-specific expression, and polar localization of these transporters differ with plant species. In this review, we focus on recent progress in Si transporters identified in different plant species. We link these transporters with an accumulation of Si in different plant species in terms of expression pattern, cell-type-specific expression, polar localization of these transporters and propose three uptake systems of Si in different plant species. We also provide the perspectives toward a better understanding of Si transport system in different plant species and discuss its essentiality for plant growth.
- cell-type-specific expression
- polar localization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Soil Science
- Plant Science