A computational technique based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is developed to simulate the wettable particles adsorbed to a liquid-vapor interface under gravity. The proposed technique combines the improved smoothed-profile LBM for the treatment of moving solid particles in a fluid and the free-energy LBM for the description of a liquid-vapor system. Five benchmark two-dimensional problems are examined: (A) a stationary liquid drop in the vapor phase; a wettable particle adsorbed to a liquid-vapor interface in (B) the absence and (C) the presence of gravity; (D) two freely moving particles at a liquid-vapor interface in the presence of gravity (i.e., capillary flotation forces); and (E) two vertically constrained particles at a liquid-vapor interface (i.e., capillary immersion forces). The simulation results are in good quantitative agreement with theoretical estimations, demonstrating that the proposed technique can reproduce the capillary interactions between wettable particles at a liquid-vapor interface under gravity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics