Large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic-ray muon flux in Kamiokande

K. Munakata, T. Kiuchi, S. Yasue, C. Kato, S. Mori, K. S. Hirata, K. Kihara, Y. Oyama, M. Mori, K. Fujita, S. Hatakeyama, M. Koga, T. Maruyama, A. Suzuki, T. Ishizuka, K. Miyano, H. Okazawa, Y. Fukuda, T. Hayakawa, K. InoueK. Ishihara, H. Ishino, S. Joukou, T. Kajita, S. Kasuga, Y. Koshio, T. Kumita, K. Matsumoto, M. Nakahata, K. Nakamura, K. Okumura, A. Sakai, M. Shiozawa, J. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, T. Tomoeda, Y. Totsuka, T. Horiuchi, K. Nishijima, M. Koshiba, T. Suda, A. T. Suzuki, T. Hara, Y. Nagashima, M. Takita, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Hayato, K. Kaneyuki, T. Suzuki, Y. Takeuchi, T. Tanimori, S. Tasaka, E. Ichihara, S. Miyamoto, K. Nishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


The large-scale anisotropy of cosmic-ray primaries in the celestial coordinate was studied using cosmic-ray muons recorded in a large water Cherenkov detector, Kamiokande. The right-ascension distribution of the muon arrival directions deviated from an isotropic distribution with a 2.8 standard deviation, and agreed well with the first harmonics with an amplitude of [Formula presented] and a phase of [Formula presented]. This is the deepest underground observation of the large-scale anisotropy of cosmic rays, and agrees with observations with other underground experiments and extensive air-shower array experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-26
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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