(Introduction and objectives) Radical nephroureterectomy with complete distal ureterectomy is the standard therapy for upper tract urothelial malignancy. Segmental ureterectomy with ueteroneocytostomy is an alternative for distal ureteral carcinoma. We describe extravesical complete distal ureterectomy combined by transurethral bladder cuff excision with frozen-section analysis. (Patient and methods) Since December 2008, 11 patients (median age 77 year old, male 10, female 1, right 10, left 1) with solitary distal ureteral carcinoma who had mild hydronephrosis of ipsilateral kidney remaining renal function on enhanced CT. Under general anesthesia, the patient was placed in lithotomy position, rigid cystoscopy was inserted into the bladder. Cold punch biopsy of 4 sites of bladder mucosa 5 mm away from ureteral orifice (12, 3, 6, 9 oclock) was carried out and sent to frozen-section analysis. Use resectoscopy with needle-type electrode, incise the bladder mucosa along the biopsy sites circumferentially and incise submucosa tissue around the ureteral orifice deeply enough to detach intramural ureter. Then lower abdominal midline incision was made. After entering the retroperitoneal space, the ureter was dissected and ureteral margin was sent to frozen-section analysis. The distal ureter was dissected until the margin of bladder mucosa incised by transurethrally. After ascertainment of no cancer cell in the frozen-section, close the defect in the bladder. Then the ureter was re-implanted into the bladder by extravesical approach. (Results) Median estimate blood loss was 150 ml (40-350 ml) and median operative time was 258 min (170-317 min.). No patients in our series required a blood transfusion. The mean tumor size was 20＋/− 4.4 mm. Pathological T stage was Ta 3, T1 3, T2 2 and T3 3. No positive surgical margin was noted. Mean serum creatinine before and 1 month after surgery was 1.05＋/− 0.21 mg/dl and 089＋/− 0.13 mg/dl. Mean eGFR before and 1 month after surgery was 54.1 ＋/− 11.4 and 63.4＋/− 8.4. Median followup was 35 months (range 4 to 93). Although there were two patients who died from distant metastatic disease, no patients have encountered cancer recurrence in the remained ipsilateral upper urinary tract. (Conclusions) Segmental ureterectomy combined by transurethral bladder cuff excision with frozen-section analysis could perform complete resection of distal ureteral carcinoma and preserve ipsilateral renal function. This technique is feasible for patients with distal ureteral carcinoma as an optional treatment. Better preservation of renal function can lead to increased tolerance of cisplatin-based adjuvant or salvage chemotherapy.
- Distal ureteral carcinoma
- Kidney-sparing segmental ureterectomy
- Urothelial carcinoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas