Isolation of the floral morph-related genes in heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum)

The genetic polymorphism and the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of the S locus

Koichiro Ushijima, Ryohei Nakano, Mayu Bando, Yukari Shigezane, Kazuo Ikeda, Yuko Namba, Saori Kume, Toshiyuki Kitabata, Hitoshi Mori, Yasutaka Kubo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary Heterostylous species have two types of flowers, thrum and pin morphs, and these are controlled by a single diallelic locus designated the 'S locus'; fertilization between these two types of flowers is successful. The S gene and the molecular mechanism by which it operates remain to be uncovered, although heterostyly has been studied since the time of Darwin. We compared transcripts and proteins of the thrum and pin flowers of heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum) to characterize the molecular differences between them and to elucidate the molecular machinery of heterostyly. Twelve floral morph-related genes were eventually isolated by an integrated study of subtraction and 2D-PAGE analyses, and four genes, TSS1, LgAP1, LgMYB21 and LgSKS1, were predicted to be related to heterostyly. TSS1, a thrum style-specific gene, showed some features suitable for the S gene. Although its biological function is unclear, TSS1 was expressed only in the thrum style and is probably linked to the S locus. LgMYB21, another thrum style gene, would be involved in floral morphogenesis. LgMYB21 was highly expressed in the thrum style, which is shorter than the pin style, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis reduced pistil length. Furthermore, a comparison of transcript and protein accumulations showed no differences in the mRNA accumulation of some thrum-specific proteins, including LgSKS1, suggesting that these are regulated by floral morph-specific post-transcriptional regulation. The Linum S locus regulates not only S specificity but also many floral phenotypes. Dynamic regulation of transcripts and proteins would be necessary for the pleiotropic function of the Linum S locus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-331
Number of pages15
JournalPlant Journal
Volume69
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Linum grandiflorum
Flax
flax
Genetic Polymorphisms
genetic polymorphism
loci
pins
Genes
Linum
genes
flowers
Proteins
proteins
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
pistil
fertilization (reproduction)
morphs
Morphogenesis
Arabidopsis
Fertilization

Keywords

  • heterostyly
  • Linum grandiflorum
  • MYB
  • post-translational modification
  • S locus
  • translational regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Isolation of the floral morph-related genes in heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum) : The genetic polymorphism and the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of the S locus. / Ushijima, Koichiro; Nakano, Ryohei; Bando, Mayu; Shigezane, Yukari; Ikeda, Kazuo; Namba, Yuko; Kume, Saori; Kitabata, Toshiyuki; Mori, Hitoshi; Kubo, Yasutaka.

In: Plant Journal, Vol. 69, No. 2, 01.2012, p. 317-331.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{e306dae5fa4e4c65aa722f7041184e51,
title = "Isolation of the floral morph-related genes in heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum): The genetic polymorphism and the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of the S locus",
abstract = "Summary Heterostylous species have two types of flowers, thrum and pin morphs, and these are controlled by a single diallelic locus designated the 'S locus'; fertilization between these two types of flowers is successful. The S gene and the molecular mechanism by which it operates remain to be uncovered, although heterostyly has been studied since the time of Darwin. We compared transcripts and proteins of the thrum and pin flowers of heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum) to characterize the molecular differences between them and to elucidate the molecular machinery of heterostyly. Twelve floral morph-related genes were eventually isolated by an integrated study of subtraction and 2D-PAGE analyses, and four genes, TSS1, LgAP1, LgMYB21 and LgSKS1, were predicted to be related to heterostyly. TSS1, a thrum style-specific gene, showed some features suitable for the S gene. Although its biological function is unclear, TSS1 was expressed only in the thrum style and is probably linked to the S locus. LgMYB21, another thrum style gene, would be involved in floral morphogenesis. LgMYB21 was highly expressed in the thrum style, which is shorter than the pin style, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis reduced pistil length. Furthermore, a comparison of transcript and protein accumulations showed no differences in the mRNA accumulation of some thrum-specific proteins, including LgSKS1, suggesting that these are regulated by floral morph-specific post-transcriptional regulation. The Linum S locus regulates not only S specificity but also many floral phenotypes. Dynamic regulation of transcripts and proteins would be necessary for the pleiotropic function of the Linum S locus.",
keywords = "heterostyly, Linum grandiflorum, MYB, post-translational modification, S locus, translational regulation",
author = "Koichiro Ushijima and Ryohei Nakano and Mayu Bando and Yukari Shigezane and Kazuo Ikeda and Yuko Namba and Saori Kume and Toshiyuki Kitabata and Hitoshi Mori and Yasutaka Kubo",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04792.x",
language = "English",
volume = "69",
pages = "317--331",
journal = "Plant Journal",
issn = "0960-7412",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Isolation of the floral morph-related genes in heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum)

T2 - The genetic polymorphism and the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of the S locus

AU - Ushijima, Koichiro

AU - Nakano, Ryohei

AU - Bando, Mayu

AU - Shigezane, Yukari

AU - Ikeda, Kazuo

AU - Namba, Yuko

AU - Kume, Saori

AU - Kitabata, Toshiyuki

AU - Mori, Hitoshi

AU - Kubo, Yasutaka

PY - 2012/1

Y1 - 2012/1

N2 - Summary Heterostylous species have two types of flowers, thrum and pin morphs, and these are controlled by a single diallelic locus designated the 'S locus'; fertilization between these two types of flowers is successful. The S gene and the molecular mechanism by which it operates remain to be uncovered, although heterostyly has been studied since the time of Darwin. We compared transcripts and proteins of the thrum and pin flowers of heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum) to characterize the molecular differences between them and to elucidate the molecular machinery of heterostyly. Twelve floral morph-related genes were eventually isolated by an integrated study of subtraction and 2D-PAGE analyses, and four genes, TSS1, LgAP1, LgMYB21 and LgSKS1, were predicted to be related to heterostyly. TSS1, a thrum style-specific gene, showed some features suitable for the S gene. Although its biological function is unclear, TSS1 was expressed only in the thrum style and is probably linked to the S locus. LgMYB21, another thrum style gene, would be involved in floral morphogenesis. LgMYB21 was highly expressed in the thrum style, which is shorter than the pin style, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis reduced pistil length. Furthermore, a comparison of transcript and protein accumulations showed no differences in the mRNA accumulation of some thrum-specific proteins, including LgSKS1, suggesting that these are regulated by floral morph-specific post-transcriptional regulation. The Linum S locus regulates not only S specificity but also many floral phenotypes. Dynamic regulation of transcripts and proteins would be necessary for the pleiotropic function of the Linum S locus.

AB - Summary Heterostylous species have two types of flowers, thrum and pin morphs, and these are controlled by a single diallelic locus designated the 'S locus'; fertilization between these two types of flowers is successful. The S gene and the molecular mechanism by which it operates remain to be uncovered, although heterostyly has been studied since the time of Darwin. We compared transcripts and proteins of the thrum and pin flowers of heterostylous flax (Linum grandiflorum) to characterize the molecular differences between them and to elucidate the molecular machinery of heterostyly. Twelve floral morph-related genes were eventually isolated by an integrated study of subtraction and 2D-PAGE analyses, and four genes, TSS1, LgAP1, LgMYB21 and LgSKS1, were predicted to be related to heterostyly. TSS1, a thrum style-specific gene, showed some features suitable for the S gene. Although its biological function is unclear, TSS1 was expressed only in the thrum style and is probably linked to the S locus. LgMYB21, another thrum style gene, would be involved in floral morphogenesis. LgMYB21 was highly expressed in the thrum style, which is shorter than the pin style, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis reduced pistil length. Furthermore, a comparison of transcript and protein accumulations showed no differences in the mRNA accumulation of some thrum-specific proteins, including LgSKS1, suggesting that these are regulated by floral morph-specific post-transcriptional regulation. The Linum S locus regulates not only S specificity but also many floral phenotypes. Dynamic regulation of transcripts and proteins would be necessary for the pleiotropic function of the Linum S locus.

KW - heterostyly

KW - Linum grandiflorum

KW - MYB

KW - post-translational modification

KW - S locus

KW - translational regulation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84855693261&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84855693261&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04792.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04792.x

M3 - Article

VL - 69

SP - 317

EP - 331

JO - Plant Journal

JF - Plant Journal

SN - 0960-7412

IS - 2

ER -