Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins and characterized by erythroid aplasia and various physical abnormalities. Although accumulating evidence suggests that defective ribosome biogenesis leads to p53-mediated apoptosis in erythroid progenitor cells, little is known regarding the underlying causes of the physical abnormalities. In this study, we established induced pluripotent stem cells from a DBA patient with RPL5 haploinsufficiency. These cells retained the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. However, RPL5 haploinsufficiency impaired the production of mucins and increased apoptosis in differentiated chondrocytes. Increased expression of the pro-apoptotic genes BAX and CASP9 further indicated that RPL5 haploinsufficiency triggered p53-mediated apoptosis in chondrocytes. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the primary negative regulator of p53, plays a crucial role in erythroid aplasia in DBA patient. We found the phosphorylation level of MDM2 was significantly decreased in RPL5 haploinsufficient chondrocytes. In stark contrast, we found no evidence that RPL5 haploinsufficiency impaired osteogenesis. Collectively, our data support a model in which RPL5 haploinsufficiency specifically induces p53-mediated apoptosis in chondrocytes through MDM2 inhibition, which leads to physical abnormalities in DBA patients.
- cleft lip and palate
- Diamond-Blackfan anemia
- iPS cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine