The effectiveness of intermittent low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary infection is well established in adults. The present study assessed the effectiveness and safety of intermittent low-dose TMP-SMZ in 35 children (24 boys, 11 girls, aged 1 month to 9 years, median age 5 months) with vesicoureteral reflux; 18 children had bilateral reflux. A total of 53 refluxing ureters were graded as I in 2, II in 16, III in 19, IV in 14, and V in 2 cases. The children were given 1 mg/kg body weight of trimethoprim together with 5 mg/kg of sulfamethoxazole at bedtime every other day for 6-50 months (mean ± SD, 22.9 ± 11.7 months). None of the boys had a recurrence of urinary infection, while 2 of the 11 girls had a total of 7 recurrences during the prophylaxis period, with a recurrence rate of 0.027 per patient month in girls. Both girls were over 3 years and had a mildly unstable bladder. Transient neutropenia (< 1000/μl) developed in 2 infants during the prophylaxis period, but disappeared spontaneously. Intermittent low-dose TMP-SMZ seemed very effective for the prevention of recurrent urinary infection in children with ureteral reflux even of higher grades.
- Urinary tract infection
- Vesicoureteral reflux
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health