Many species of chiton are known to deposit magnetite (Fe3O4) within the cusps of their heavily mineralized and ultrahard radular teeth. Recently, much attention has been paid to the ultrastructural design and superior mechanical properties of these radular teeth, providing a promising model for the development of novel abrasion resistant materials. Here, we constructed de novo assembled transcripts from the radular tissue of C. stelleri that were used for transcriptome and proteome analysis. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the top 20 most highly expressed transcripts in the non-mineralized teeth region include the transcripts encoding ferritin, while those in the mineralized teeth region contain a high proportion of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins. Proteomic analysis identified 22 proteins that were specifically expressed in the mineralized cusp. These specific proteins include a novel protein that we term radular teeth matrix protein1 (RTMP1), globins, peroxidasins, antioxidant enzymes and a ferroxidase protein. This study reports the first de novo transcriptome assembly from C. stelleri, providing a broad overview of radular teeth mineralization. This new transcriptomic resource and the proteomic profiles of mineralized cusp are valuable for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of radular teeth mineralization in chitons.
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