Influence of distant scatterer on air kerma measurement in the evaluation of diagnostic X-rays using Monte Carlo simulation

Masahide Tominaga, Yukari Nagayasu, Motoharu Sasaki, Takuya Furuta, Hiroaki Hayashi, Masataka Oita, Yuichi Nishiyama, Akihiro Haga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The evaluation of the entrance surface dose (ESD) ensures safe radiation doses for X-ray imaging patients. The air kerma free-in-air value used to estimate ESD may be affected by those X-rays that scatter from the scatterer placed behind the chamber at the time of measurement, thereby leading to assessment errors. Therefore, the influence of scattered radiation on air kerma measurements was investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for various detector-to-scatterer distances and scatterer materials. The simulation results were compared with actual measurements to confirm the simulation accuracy. The source–chamber distance was set to 50 and 100 cm for the experimental measurements and simulation, respectively, and the chamber–scatterer distance was varied. The Monte Carlo simulation results reproduced the actual measurements with an accuracy of 3.5%. The effect of backscattering varied with the tube voltage and irradiation field size. The effect was observed in the order of prominence for the following scatterer materials: water-equivalent phantom, acrylic, concrete, lead, and iron. Furthermore, this effect decreased exponentially with increasing chamber–scatterer distance. For a field size of 10 × 10 cm2, the finite-distance backscatter factor decreased with an increasing chamber–scatterer distance for all materials. The cause of backscattering in diagnostic X-ray energy regions differs depending on the scatterer material, as well as the photon energy and field size. Backscattering decreases exponentially as the distance between the detector and scatterer increases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-389
Number of pages9
JournalRadiological physics and technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Air kerma
  • Backscattering
  • Dosimetry
  • Monte Carlo simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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