In vivo monitoring of plant small GTPase activation using a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor

Hann Ling Wong, Akira Akamatsu, Qiong Wang, Masayuki Higuchi, Tomonori Matsuda, Jun Okuda, Ken ichi Kosami, Noriko Inada, Tsutomu Kawasaki, Shingo Nagawa, Li Tan, Yoji Kawano, Ko Shimamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Small GTPases act as molecular switches that regulate various plant responses such as disease resistance, pollen tube growth, root hair development, cell wall patterning and hormone responses. Thus, to monitor their activation status within plant cells is believed to be the key step in understanding their roles. We have established a plant version of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe called Ras and interacting protein chimeric unit (Raichu) that can successfully monitor activation of the rice small GTPase OsRac1 during various defence responses in rice cells. Here, we describe the protocol for visualizing spatiotemporal activity of plant Rac/ROP GTPase in living plant cells, transfection of rice protoplasts with Raichu-OsRac1 and acquisition of FRET images. Our protocol should be widely adaptable for monitoring activation for other plant small GTPases and for other FRET sensors in various plant cells.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUnknown Journal
Publication statusPublished - Jan 18 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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