The therapeutic effect of in vivo direct reprogramming on ischemic stroke has not been evaluated. In the present study, a retroviral solution (1.5–2.0 × 107 /ul) of mock pMX-GFP (n = 13) or pMX-Ascl1/Sox2/NeuroD1 (ASN) (n = 14) was directly injected into the ipsilateral striatum and cortex 3 days after 30 min of transient cerebral ischemia. The reprogrammed cells first expressed neuronal progenitor marker Dcx 7 and 21 days after viral injection, then expressed mature neuronal marker NeuN. This was accompanied by morphological changes, including long processes and synapse-like structures, 49 days after viral injection. Meanwhile, therapeutic improvement was not detected both in clinical scores or infarct volume. The present study provides a future novel self-repair strategy for ischemic stroke with beneficial modifications of the inducer-suppressor balance.
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