In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation and intracellular location of rice dwarf phytoreovirus Pns 12, which is encoded by one of the twelve dsRNA genome segments, S12, and comprises 312 amino acids, was investigated. When [32P]phosphoric acid was incorporated into RDV-infected leafhopper cultured cells, labelled Pns 12 was immunoprecipitated from the cells by a monospecific anti-Pns12 polyclonal antibody. Recombinant Pns12 was purified from Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with AcRS12, a baculovirus recombinant carrying a full-length cDNA of RDV S12. Purified Pns 12 was also demonstrated to be phosphorylated in vitro by a kinase activity present in host (rice, barley, wheat, leafhopper) cells and non-host (tobacco, spinach, white clover, S. frugiperda, mosquito, mammals) cells as well. Immunocytochemical studies showed Pns12 accumulated in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and frequently localized in a slightly electron-dense patch. These results demonstrated that RDV Pns12 was a cytoplasmic nonstructural phosphoprotein.
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