In vitro substrate phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase using guanosine-5-triphosphate as a phosphate donor

Saki Yurimoto, Tomohito Fujimoto, Masaki Magari, Naoki Kanayama, Ryoji Kobayashi, Hiroshi Tokumitsu

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) phosphorylates and activates particular downstream protein kinases - including CaMKI, CaMKIV, and AMPK - to stimulate multiple Ca2+-signal transduction pathways. To identify previously unidentified CaMKK substrates, we used various nucleotides as phosphate donors to develop and characterize an in vitro phosphorylation assay for CaMKK. Results: Here, we found that the recombinant CaMKK isoforms were capable of utilizing Mg-GTP as a phosphate donor to phosphorylate the Thr residue in the activation-loop of CaMKIα (Thr177) and of AMPK (Thr172) in vitro. Kinetic analysis indicated that the K m values of CaMKK isoforms for GTP (400-500 μM) were significantly higher than those for ATP (∼15 μM), and a 2- to 4-fold decrease in V max was observed with GTP. We also confirmed that an ATP competitive CaMKK inhibitor, STO-609, also competes with GTP to inhibit the activities of CaMKK isoforms. In addition, to detect enhanced CaMKI phosphorylation in brain extracts with Mg-GTP and recombinant CaMKKs, we found potential CaMKK substrates of ∼45 kDa and ∼35 kDa whose Ca 2+/CaM-induced phosphorylation was inhibited by STO-609. Conclusions: These results indicated that screens that use STO-609 as a CaMKK inhibitor and Mg-GTP as a CaMKK-dependent phosphate donor might be useful to identify previously unidentified downstream target substrates of CaMKK.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27
JournalBMC Biochemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • CaMKK
  • Calmodulin
  • GTP
  • Phosphate donor
  • Phosphorylation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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