In vitro bioactivity evaluation of nano- and micro-crystalline anodic TiO 2: HA formation, cellular affinity and organ culture

Sang Hyun An, Takuya Matsumoto, Jun Ichi Sasaki, Hiroyuki Miyajima, Ramaswamy Narayanan, Satoshi Imazato, Kyo Han Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Anodization is an easily viable technique useful for producing TiO 2 coatings on titanium substrates. Nano-crystalline anodic TiO 2 structure was produced on titanium at 20 V using 1 M Na 2SO 4 and 0.5% NaF and consolidated by a further heat-treatment. Micro-crystalline anodic TiO 2 was produced on titanium by applying a galvanostatic current density of 70 A/m 2 in water medium. To assess the usefulness of these nano- and micro-oxides for bone implant stability, physical properties and bone in vitro bioactivity including HA formation, cellular affinity and mouse-tissue morphogenesis, were evaluated. Bioactivity of the different anodic surfaces was evaluated by treating them in a simulated body fluid (SBF) to form hydroxyapatite (HA) and the rates of HA formation were compared. Deposits of HA could be seen on the nano-oxide surface within 7 days, whereas HA was detected only after 14 days on the micro-oxide surface. In vitro cell culture tests done using mouse osteoblasts indicated that the nano-oxides showed statistically significant cell activity than the micro-oxides and the machined titanium. Branching morphogenesis test done for 72 h on these surfaces showed more branching on the micro- and nano-oxides as compared with titanium surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2516-2522
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Anodization
  • In vitro study
  • Micro-surface
  • Nano-surface
  • Surface modification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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