In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 μm infrared laser absorption method: Application to an actual engine

Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Atsushi Nishiyama, Masahiro Shigenaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An infrared absorption method with a 3.392 umm He-Ne laser was used to determine the hydrocarbon fuel concentration near the spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Iso-octane was used for the fuel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was clarified. The molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component fuel such as gasoline were estimated by using the coefficient of each component and considering the mass balance. A sensor was developed and installed in a spark plug, which was substituted in place of an ordinary spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Light can pass from the sensor through the engine cylinder to measure the fuel concentration. The effects of liquid droplets inside the engine cylinder, mechanical vibrations and other gases such as H2O and CO2 on the measurement accuracy were considered. Four main conclusions were drawn from this study. First, the pressure and temperature effects on the molar absorption coefficient of liquid fuel vapour were determined independently in advance using a constant-volume vessel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was determined under engine firing conditions. Second, the molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component hydrocarbon fuel such as gasoline were estimated by considering the molar fraction of each component. Third, in situ measurements of the hydrocarbon fuel concentration in an actual engine were obtained using the spark plug sensor and the molar absorption coefficient of iso-octane. The concentration near the spark plug just before ignition was almost in agreement with the mean value that was obtained from the measurement of the flow rate made with a burette, which represented the mean value averaged over many cycles. And fourth, no liquid droplets were observed at near-idling conditions. The effects of other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O, can be neglected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1357-1363
Number of pages7
JournalMeasurement Science and Technology
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2003

Fingerprint

spark plugs
Spark plugs
hydrocarbon fuels
In Situ Measurements
Infrared lasers
Plug-in
Hydrocarbons
Engine cylinders
in situ measurement
Absorption Coefficient
infrared lasers
engines
absorptivity
Engine
Infrared
Absorption
Laser
Engines
Ignition
spark ignition

Keywords

  • Air/fuel ratio
  • Fibre-optic sensor
  • Infrared absorption method
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Laser diagnostics
  • Liquid fuel
  • Molar absorption coefficient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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title = "In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 μm infrared laser absorption method: Application to an actual engine",
abstract = "An infrared absorption method with a 3.392 umm He-Ne laser was used to determine the hydrocarbon fuel concentration near the spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Iso-octane was used for the fuel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was clarified. The molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component fuel such as gasoline were estimated by using the coefficient of each component and considering the mass balance. A sensor was developed and installed in a spark plug, which was substituted in place of an ordinary spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Light can pass from the sensor through the engine cylinder to measure the fuel concentration. The effects of liquid droplets inside the engine cylinder, mechanical vibrations and other gases such as H2O and CO2 on the measurement accuracy were considered. Four main conclusions were drawn from this study. First, the pressure and temperature effects on the molar absorption coefficient of liquid fuel vapour were determined independently in advance using a constant-volume vessel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was determined under engine firing conditions. Second, the molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component hydrocarbon fuel such as gasoline were estimated by considering the molar fraction of each component. Third, in situ measurements of the hydrocarbon fuel concentration in an actual engine were obtained using the spark plug sensor and the molar absorption coefficient of iso-octane. The concentration near the spark plug just before ignition was almost in agreement with the mean value that was obtained from the measurement of the flow rate made with a burette, which represented the mean value averaged over many cycles. And fourth, no liquid droplets were observed at near-idling conditions. The effects of other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O, can be neglected.",
keywords = "Air/fuel ratio, Fibre-optic sensor, Infrared absorption method, Internal combustion engine, Laser diagnostics, Liquid fuel, Molar absorption coefficient",
author = "Eiji Tomita and Nobuyuki Kawahara and Atsushi Nishiyama and Masahiro Shigenaga",
year = "2003",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1088/0957-0233/14/8/322",
language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 μm infrared laser absorption method

T2 - Application to an actual engine

AU - Tomita, Eiji

AU - Kawahara, Nobuyuki

AU - Nishiyama, Atsushi

AU - Shigenaga, Masahiro

PY - 2003/8

Y1 - 2003/8

N2 - An infrared absorption method with a 3.392 umm He-Ne laser was used to determine the hydrocarbon fuel concentration near the spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Iso-octane was used for the fuel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was clarified. The molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component fuel such as gasoline were estimated by using the coefficient of each component and considering the mass balance. A sensor was developed and installed in a spark plug, which was substituted in place of an ordinary spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Light can pass from the sensor through the engine cylinder to measure the fuel concentration. The effects of liquid droplets inside the engine cylinder, mechanical vibrations and other gases such as H2O and CO2 on the measurement accuracy were considered. Four main conclusions were drawn from this study. First, the pressure and temperature effects on the molar absorption coefficient of liquid fuel vapour were determined independently in advance using a constant-volume vessel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was determined under engine firing conditions. Second, the molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component hydrocarbon fuel such as gasoline were estimated by considering the molar fraction of each component. Third, in situ measurements of the hydrocarbon fuel concentration in an actual engine were obtained using the spark plug sensor and the molar absorption coefficient of iso-octane. The concentration near the spark plug just before ignition was almost in agreement with the mean value that was obtained from the measurement of the flow rate made with a burette, which represented the mean value averaged over many cycles. And fourth, no liquid droplets were observed at near-idling conditions. The effects of other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O, can be neglected.

AB - An infrared absorption method with a 3.392 umm He-Ne laser was used to determine the hydrocarbon fuel concentration near the spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Iso-octane was used for the fuel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was clarified. The molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component fuel such as gasoline were estimated by using the coefficient of each component and considering the mass balance. A sensor was developed and installed in a spark plug, which was substituted in place of an ordinary spark plug in a spark-ignition engine. Light can pass from the sensor through the engine cylinder to measure the fuel concentration. The effects of liquid droplets inside the engine cylinder, mechanical vibrations and other gases such as H2O and CO2 on the measurement accuracy were considered. Four main conclusions were drawn from this study. First, the pressure and temperature effects on the molar absorption coefficient of liquid fuel vapour were determined independently in advance using a constant-volume vessel. The pressure and temperature dependence of the molar absorption coefficient was determined under engine firing conditions. Second, the molar absorption coefficients of a multi-component hydrocarbon fuel such as gasoline were estimated by considering the molar fraction of each component. Third, in situ measurements of the hydrocarbon fuel concentration in an actual engine were obtained using the spark plug sensor and the molar absorption coefficient of iso-octane. The concentration near the spark plug just before ignition was almost in agreement with the mean value that was obtained from the measurement of the flow rate made with a burette, which represented the mean value averaged over many cycles. And fourth, no liquid droplets were observed at near-idling conditions. The effects of other gases, such as CO, CO2 and H2O, can be neglected.

KW - Air/fuel ratio

KW - Fibre-optic sensor

KW - Infrared absorption method

KW - Internal combustion engine

KW - Laser diagnostics

KW - Liquid fuel

KW - Molar absorption coefficient

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EP - 1363

JO - Measurement Science and Technology

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