Improved survival in real-world patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma: A multicenter propensity score-matched cohort study comparing a period before the introduction of pembrolizumab (2003–2011) and a more recent period (2016–2020)

Satoru Taguchi, Taketo Kawai, Tohru Nakagawa, Jimpei Miyakawa, Kenjiro Kishitani, Kazuma Sugimoto, Yu Nakamura, Jun Kamei, Daisuke Obinata, Kenya Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Kaneko, Kanae Yoshida, Sachi Yamamoto, Shigenori Kakutani, Koichiro Kanazawa, Yuriko Sugihara, Mayuko Tokunaga, Akihiko Matsumoto, Yukari Uemura, Yoshiyuki AkiyamaYuta Yamada, Yusuke Sato, Daisuke Yamada, Yutaka Enomoto, Hiroaki Nishimatsu, Akira Ishikawa, Yoshinori Tanaka, Yasushi Nagase, Tetsuya Fujimura, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Satoru Takahashi, Haruki Kume

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: Although the treatment strategy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC) has drastically changed since pembrolizumab was introduced in 2017, studies revealing current survival rates in aUC are lacking. This study aimed to assess (1) the improvement in survival among real-world patients with aUC after the introduction of pembrolizumab and (2) the direct survival-prolonging effect of pembrolizumab. Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included 531 patients with aUC undergoing salvage chemotherapy, including 200 patients treated in the pre-pembrolizumab era (2003–2011; earlier era) and 331 patients treated in a recent 5-year period (2016–2020; recent era). Using propensity score matching (PSM), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between the earlier and recent eras, in addition to between the recent era, both with and without pembrolizumab use, and the earlier era. Results: After PSM, the recent era cohort had significantly longer CSS (21 months) and OS (19 months) than the earlier era cohort (CSS and OS: 12 months). In secondary analyses using PSM, patients treated with pembrolizumab had significantly longer CSS (25 months) and OS (24 months) than those in the earlier era cohort (CSS and OS: 11 months), whereas patients who did not receive pembrolizumab in the recent era had similar outcomes (CSS and OS: 14 months) as the earlier era cohort (CSS and OS: 12 months). Conclusions: Patients with aUC treated in the recent era exhibited significantly longer survival than those treated before the introduction of pembrolizumab. The improved survival was primarily attributable to the use of pembrolizumab.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Urology
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • advanced
  • bladder cancer
  • metastatic
  • pembrolizumab
  • propensity score matching
  • urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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