Importance of saline contrast transthoracic echocardiography for evaluating large right-to-left shunt in patent foramen ovale associated with cryptogenic stroke

Yoichi Takaya, Rie Nakayama, Teiji Akagi, Fumi Yokohama, Takashi Miki, Koji Nakagawa, Norihisa Toh, Hiroshi Ito

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Medicine & Life Sciences