Impaired Antibody Response Following the Second Dose of the BNT162b2 Vaccine in Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Receiving Ruxolitinib

Daisuke Ikeda, Toshiki Terao, Daisuke Miura, Kentaro Narita, Ami Fukumoto, Ayumi Kuzume, Yuya Kamura, Rikako Tabata, Takafumi Tsushima, Masami Takeuchi, Takaaki Hosoki, Kosei Matsue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Data on the effect of ruxolitinib on antibody response to severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is lacking. We prospectively evaluated anti-spike-receptor binding domain antibody (anti-S Ab) levels after the second dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine in MPN patients. A total of 74 patients with MPN and 81 healthy controls who were vaccinated were enrolled in the study. Of the MPN patients, 27% received ruxolitinib at the time of vaccination. Notably, MPN patients receiving ruxolitinib had a 30-fold lower median anti-S Ab level than those not receiving ruxolitinib (p < 0.001). Further, the anti-S Ab levels in MPN patients not receiving ruxolitinib were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (p < 0.001). Regarding a clinical protective titre that has been shown to correlate with preventing symptomatic infection, only 10% of the MPN patients receiving ruxolitinib had the protective value. Univariate analysis revealed that ruxolitinib, myelofibrosis, and longer time from diagnosis to vaccination had a significantly negative impact on achieving the protective value (p = 0.001, 0.021, and 0.019, respectively). In subgroup analysis, lower numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes were significantly correlated with a lower probability of obtaining the protective value (p = 0.011 and 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, our results highlight ruxolitinib-induced impaired vaccine response and the necessity of booster immunisation in MPN patients. Moreover, T-cell mediated immunity may have an important role in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response in patients with MPN, though further studies are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number826537
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 25 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • antibody response
  • BNT162b2
  • COVID-19
  • MPN
  • ruxolitinib
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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