Impact of human activities and natural processes on the seasonal variability of River water quality in two watersheds in Lampung, Indonesia

Rahmah Dewi Yustika, Hiroaki Somura, Slamet Budi Yuwono, Tsugiyuki Masunaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study identified seasonal water quality characteristics in two adjacent mountainous rivers (Sangharus and Sekampung Hulu Rivers) in Lampung, Indonesia and determined the impacts of fertilizer application on river chemistry as a result of social forestry management. In 2016, we measured water chemistry and conducted a farmers' questionnaire survey to obtain information on fertilizer application. The water quality results indicated that several parameters, including nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4), were significantly higher in the Sangharus River than in the Sekampung Hulu River. In addition, several parameters were influenced by dilution from high river flow in the rainy season. Some parameters were likely influenced by the weathering of parent materials. By contrast, electrical conductivity (EC) and NO3 were higher in the rainy season, which was likely linked to the dominant timing of urea fertilizer application during this season. Despite the application of fertilizers in the watersheds, NO3 levels remained below the recommended standard. However, aluminum and iron concentrations were higher than the recommended level for drinking water, which was likely due to elevated soil erosion from improper land management. Therefore, we recommend that effective land management policies be implemented through the adoption of soil conservation practices for nutrient loss prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2363
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2019



  • Coffee plantation
  • Dry and rainy seasons
  • Fertilizer application
  • Parent material
  • Social forestry
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this