Impact of Area Under the Concentration–Time Curve on the Prevalence of Vancomycin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Combination With Tazobactam/Piperacillin or Cefepime: A Single-Institution Retrospective Study

Naoto Okada, Yuki Izumi, Aki Nakamoto, Masayuki Chuma, Mitsuhiro Goda, Kenta Yagi, Fuka Aizawa, Hirofumi Hamano, Yoshito Zamami, Momoyo Azuma, Keisuke Ishizawa

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Abstract

Purpose: Risk for vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity (VIN) is reportedly reduced by AUC-guided vancomycin dosing. However, it remains unknown whether the increased VIN risk in combination treatment with vancomycin and tazobactam/piperacillin, which is a VIN risk factor, can be diminished by AUC-guided vancomycin dosing (vancomycin-AUC). The aim of this study was to assess whether the evaluation of vancomycin-AUC + tazobactam/piperacillin (VT) combination therapy could prevent VIN. Methods: The data from patients who received VT or vancomycin + cefepime (VC; the control group) at Tokushima University Hospital (Kuramoto, Japan) between April 2010 and March 2020 were analyzed in this retrospective study. The between-group difference in the prevalence of VIN onset, stratified by AUC, was investigated. The AUC of vancomycin was calculated using the Bayesian method with the blood concentration of vancomycin. The risk factors and probability of VIN onset from the vancomycin exposure–toxicity curve were evaluated using the logistic model. Findings: The prevalences of VIN were 29.5% (18/61) and 7.1% (3/42) in the VT and VC groups, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of data from all patients revealed concurrent use of tazobactam/piperacillin (odds ratio [OR] = 4.59; P = 0.039) and AUC increase (OR = 1.01; P < 0.01) as risk factors for VIN, but only concurrent use of tazobactam/piperacillin was identified as a risk factor in patients with an AUC of <600 μg · h/mL, the guideline-recommended value (OR = 9.52; P = 0.041). Moreover, the vancomycin exposure–toxicity curve showed that in the guideline-recommended AUC range, VIN probability was consistently higher and the slope of VIN probability was greater in the VT group than in the VC group. Implications: VIN risk was higher with VT than with VC, even when the AUC was controlled to the guideline-recommended range. These results strongly suggest that VIN prevention may be difficult with AUC-guided vancomycin dosing in patients receiving VT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1910-1920.e3
JournalClinical Therapeutics
Volume43
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • area under the concentration–time curve
  • nephrotoxicity
  • tazobactam/piperacillin
  • vancomycin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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