Hypothermia reduces ischemia- and stimulation-induced myocardial interstitial norepinephrine and acetylcholine releases

Toru Kawada, Hirotoshi Kitagawa, Toji Yamazaki, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Atsunori Kamiya, Kazunori Uemura, Hidezo Mori, Masaru Sugimachi

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Although hypothermia is one of the most powerful modulators that can reduce ischemic injury, the effects of hypothermia on the function of the cardiac autonomic nerves in vivo are not well understood. We examined the effects of hypothermia on the myocardial interstitial norepinephrine (NE) and ACh releases in response to acute myocardial ischemia and to efferent sympathetic or vagal nerve stimulation in anesthetized cats. We induced acute myocardial ischemia by coronary artery occlusion. Compared with normothermia (n = 8), hypothermia at 33°C (n = 6) suppressed the ischemia-induced NE release [63 nM (SD 39) vs. 18 nM (SD 25), P < 0.01] and ACh release [11.6 nM (SD 7.6) vs. 2.4 nM (SD 1.3), P < 0.01] in the ischemic region. Under hypothermia, the coronary occlusion increased the ACh level from 0.67 nM (SD 0.44) to 6.0 nM (SD 6.0) (P < 0.05) and decreased the NE level from 0.63 nM (SD 0.19) to 0.40 nM (SD 0.25) (P < 0.05) in the nonischemic region. Hypothermia attenuated the nerve stimulation-induced NE release from 1.05 nM (SD 0.85) to 0.73 nM (SD 0.73) (P < 0.05, n = 6) and ACh release from 10.2 nM (SD 5.1) to 7.1 nM (SD 3.4) (P < 0.05, n = 5). In conclusion, hypothermia attenuated the ischemia-induced NE and ACh releases in the ischemic region. Moreover, hypothermia also attenuated the nerve stimulation-induced NE and ACh releases. The Bezold-Jarisch reflex evoked by the left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, however, did not appear to be affected under hypothermia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)622-627
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2007



  • Cardiac microdialysis
  • Cats
  • Sympathetic nerve
  • Vagal nerve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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